Intro to WIne Making
Intro to WIne Making Ven 3
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ven 3 at University of California - Davis taught by Jean-Jacques Lambart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Intro to wine making in Art History at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Intro T o Wine Making Class Day 1 (March 29) – Introduction What is wine? -Fermented grape juice ► Other fruits must be specified – Strawberry Wine – Rhubarb Wine – (Hard) Apple Cider – Mead – Perry ► ‘Nectar of the Gods’ Definition of the Wine Making process Grape Juice -------Yeast---------Wine + CO2 -The yeast consumes sugar and converts it to alcohol, resulting in wine with the release of CO2 Wine as an Academic subject - Wine can be studied directly in the disciplines of Enology (winemaking) and Vitculture (grape growing) • Wine as a topic cuts across many academic disciplines, which include: Engineering, Law, Economics, Microbiology, Sensory Science, Botany, Plant Physiology, Geography, History, Sociology, Medicine, Art, Literature, music, etc Wine Legislation • Wine: a tightly regulated commodity • Wine and drinking age laws • Wine appellation designations (geography) • Wine types and composition • Wine taxation • Wine import laws • etc... Wine Classifications Color ► Grape Variety ► Place of Origin ► Price ► Sweetness ► Alcohol Level ► Effervescence Legal Classification Alcohol Level – 9-14%: table wine, >14 to 24 %: dessert or fortified wine ► Effervescence – >1 atmosphere carbon dioxide: sparkling wine ► Quality Categories – Appellation of Origin (Grapes) – Table Wine ► Grape Variety – Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel Wine Taxation Federal Excise Tax + California State Tax (per gallon) – Table Wine: 9-14% alcohol (v/v), $1.07 + 20c – Fortified Wine: 14-21% alcohol, $1.57 + 20c – Fortified wine over 21% alcohol, $3.15 +20c 2 – Sparkling Wine: $3.40 +30c – State Taxes for table wine vary greatly: CA: 20c to KY: $3.18 Beer ~58.09c + 20c (31 gal for $18) Wine Economics: Information Resources Wine Economics and Policy (Elsevier, Florence) • The Wine Economist • Wine Business Monthly • Journal of Wine Economics (JWE) • Specialized Economics classes in some Marketing Categories Price per 750 mL equivalent; 2012 market share for CA shipments (volume) – <$3 “value” or jug wine; – $5 to $7 popular premium “fighting varietals”; – $7 to $ 14 Super Premium (20.8%); – $14 to $25 Ultra Premium; – Luxury premium >$25 ► Sweetness – Dry, Semi-Dry, Sweet ► Color – Red, White, Rose 3 Industry Sales Growth is Driven By “top few” Suppliers In 2012, nearly 70% of the industry’s sales growth was driven by just four suppliers. -Other 34% -E and J Gallo 27% -Constellation Brands 21% -The Wine Groups10% -Trinchero Family Estates 8% Top Three Growing Wine Brands -Barefoot (Gallo)- 65$, 14.6% growth -Cupcake (Wine Group)- 48$, 40% growth -Apothic Red (Gallo) 35$, 118% growth 10 Family Owned Wineries Represent 75% of All US Wine Sales (2014 Rankings) Annual US Wine Consumption -US total consump)on: 856 M gallons in 2013 -US per capita consump)on1 is increasing: -1992: 1.87 gallons -2013: 2.73 gallons -Other products: – Beer, 20.7 ‡; Spirits 1.3; Milk 21.9; Coffee 23.6 gallons ‡ 4 Over Half the Wine Sold in the USA comes from California 34%- Imported 57%- California 9%- Other States Wine Consumption and Production Worldwide (2012) In Millions of Hectoliters Top Producers -Italy -France -Spain -US -Rapid Rise of Wine Imports and consumption in china Which Countries Buy the Most American Wine? -UK 34% -Canada 19% -Japan 16% Which Countries do we buy wine from? -Italy 31% -Australia 26% -France 14% 5 What Grape Types Are Most/Lease Produced Types of Grapes Crushed -Red Wine Grapes -White Wine Grapes -Raisin Grapes -Table Grapes Land Devotion to Wine Making Decreasing -Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, Greece, Australia, Argentina Stable –US, Brazil, Romania, Turkey, South Africa Increasing- China, New Zealand, Chile Europe is largest Importer in the world by 45% North America is 22% Wine Tourism Spurs growth of the hospitality industry Hotels, Spas, restaurants, souvenir shops Organized tours of tasting rooms, sightseeing, luxury shops and art galleries common in wine country town centers Sensory Science Sensory science is part of food science and technology 6 Wine sensory science uses a number of tests in specially equipped research labs where sensory assessments are performed There are many types of tests: hedonic testing, difference testing, and descriptive analysis performed by trained panelists Microbiology of Wine Making Role of yeasts in must fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Study of the role of bacteria, both good and bad, in the development of wine flavor and wine spoilage (i.e. malolactic bacteria) Improvement of yeasts using molecular genetic approaches New yeast strain development, cultivation of wild yeasts Sustainable Water Use in Vineyards -Rootstock Water Use -Vascular Transport -Technology to quantify water use Winemaking History • Winemaking has been documented in the Republic of Georgia (6000 BC) and Iran (5000 BC). • It probably started earlier, in the Late Neolithic (ca. 11000 BC) after pottery was invented. 7 • Winemaking and grape cultivation were well established in the Mediterranean during the Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations. • Romanization contributed to the spread of winegrowing all over the empire. • Christianization followed, using wine for religious sacraments. • Wine was also known in China starting before the Christian era. Wine Geography Wine Geography studies the spatial distribution of wine cultivation throughout the world, looking at wine types, cultivars, economic activity. • “Terroir” studies: e.g. James E Wilson, The Role of Geology, Climate and Culture in the Making of French Wines Art and Wine The association between art and wine is almost as old as viticulture itself. Art depicts wine and viticulture in various forms including mural paintings, mosaics, sculpture, decorated pottery and drinking vessels. Wine and Engineering Technology -Technology is ubiquitous in winemaking and has made large- scale production possible: presses, fermentation tanks, de- stemmers, harvesters, micro-oxygenation, etc. -Old Press in Europe 8 -Old Press in South Africa 19 century -Contemporary Butcher Vaslin Wine Press The T.J Rodgers Research Fermentors, UC Davis • Mobile, 150 L Stainless Steel, Jacketed, Dual Purpose Fermentors • Variable position head, open top or Pump-Over • Pump and Brix Sensor in a central port • Sampling without opening the fermentor • Carbon Dioxide capture and addition ports • No fittings or ports in the wall or base • Fermentor becomes the basket for pressing • Easily inverted for automated spray ball cleaning Ampelography • Ampelography is the science of description and identification of grapevine cultivars from the genus Vitis. • Mostly an art until World War II. • Developed into a systematic set of criteria for vine identification in the 50’s by the French academic Pierre Galet • Criteria used include: leaf size, shape and contour, growing shoots, shoot tips, petioles characteristics, flowers, grape cluster shape, color and size of the berries. • In recent years, DNA fingerprinting has added another tool to study the parentage of cultivars (i.e. Carole Meredith, UCD, on Zinfandel) Sources of Wine Flavor 9 Grapes---Yeast----fermentation----Processing and aging----- =Wine Grapes are the source of wine flavor Variety Where grown -Appellation (location) How they are grown -Vineyard management Grapes: An ideal fermentation medium • High sugar Sugar alcohol • High nitrogen • Other nutrients Wine Happens! • Grapes have all the ingredients • Yeast is on the berry surface WINE WAS DISCOVERED, NOT INVENTED! Wine Calories • Sugar is converted to alcohol • Alcohol, acid, phenols are preservatives • Calories are preserved for 1+ years • Microbes cannot make wine toxic Caloric Content Comparisons: • Protein and carbohydrates: 4 kcal/gram • Fat: 9 kcal/gram • Alcohol: 7 kcal/gram Grapevine Relatives • Boston Ivy • Virginia Creeper • Grape Ivy 10 ALL HAVE BERRIES ALL ARE WOODY VINES WITH TENDRILS (a woody vine is a liana) Grapes • Family: – Vitaceae • Genus: – Vitis • Species: – Vitis vinifera (European wine grape) • Example Varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling, Merlot,... • Over 5000 varieties of Vitis vinifera • Began as a wild plant (all crops did...) Native growing area of V. vinifera Cultivation started about 6000 years ago -Grapes grow in mostly temperate regions Vitis Vinifera Viticulture Limits in USA -In general the coastal regions are best for growing vines 11 Top 10 Most planted varieties In 1990 1. Airen (W) 2. Garnacha Tinta (R) 3. Rkatsiteli (R) 4. Thompson Seedless (W) 5. Trebbiano Toscano (W) 6. Carignan (R) 7. Merlot (R) 8. Cabernet Sauvignon (R) 9. Mourvedre (R) 10. Bobal ...And in 2010 1. Cabernet Sauvignon (R) 2. Merlot (R) 3. Airen (W) 4. Tempranillo (R) 5. Chardonnay (W) 6. Syrah (R) 7. Garnacha Tinta (R) 8. Sauvignon Blanc (W) 9. Trebbiano Toscano (W) 10. Pinot Noir (R) Grape Varietal Trends • A move towards a greater homogeneity of varieties due to the success of varietal labeling - In 2000, white wine grapes were more widely grown. -However, in the decade to 2010 red wine grapes increased their share of the global vine-bearing area from 49% to 55%. A change in consumer preferences is increasing the share of red grapes grown -Globally, 35 varieties accounted for 59% of the world’s wine 12 grapes by area in 2000, but that share was 66% by 2010. • Climate change is increasingly influencing producers to select varieties more suited to what climate is expected to be in their area. • Since 2010, there seems to be a rising tide of small producers moving back to “indigenous” and alternative varieties to return to their “roots” or diversify offerings. • Technological advances in grape growing and winemaking are favoring the renewed use of grapes that were formerly difficult to grow or make wine with. Vitis vinifera - CABERNET SAUVIGNON Bordeaux Thick-skinned, small berries, dark blue Best known black grape variety High in tannins Vitis vinifera- PINOT NOIR From Burgundy Also used in Champagne Traditionally not blended Very sensitive to climatic conditions Low levels of tannin and color in skins Light to medium- bodied red, relatively pale-colored wine Vitis vinifera: ZINFANDEL 13 ORIGINATED IN CROATIA KNOWN THERE AS CRLJENAK KASTELANSKY POPULAR IN CALIFORNIA OFTEN CONSUMED AS WHITE ZINFANDEL MAKES JAMMY RED WINES HIGH IN ALCOHOL -DNA testing, UC Davis (Carole Meredith): Zinfandel = Primitivo (Italy, about 150 years old) Zinfandel related to Plavac Mali (Croatia) Zinfandel x Dobricic = Plavac Mali V. Vinifera: Merlot From Bordeaux Most widely planted black variety in area Traditionally blended with more tannic Cabernet Sauvignon Unblended: Fruity, matures quickly V. Vinifera: Tempranillo Originally a varietal from northern Spain (Rioja, Ribeira del Duero Somewhat fragile and prone to disease. Neutral profile, with plum and strawberry aromas Used to make full-bodied wines Often blended with other varietals V. Vinifera: Grenache/ Garnacha 14 Most likely originated in northern Spain Ripens late and needs dry, hot conditions (Spain, Australia, CA central valley) Over 80% of Châteauneuf-du- Pape blend, Rhône Valley Often used in blends (GSM) High sugar but tend to lack acid, tannins, color Vitis Vinifera: AIREN Known as Lairen in Spain in the 15th century Still the third most planted grape in 2010, down from first place 30% of all grape varietals planted in Spain, and mostly planted in that country Very resistant to drought and diseases, very productive Does not make very high quality wines Often used in blends Vitis Vinifera: CHARDONNAY From Burgundy Most popular white grape variety Easy to grow: quite disease-resistantand prolific Adapts well to climate, soil, & wine making Also used for Champagne V. Vinifera varieties: Sauvignon blanc From Bordeaux 2nd most popular white 15 Dry, fresh white wines with intense grass, citrus, tropical fruit and gooseberry flavors High acidity A good blending variety Traditionally blended with Semillon Vitis Vinifera: TREBBIANO TOSCANO, aka Ugni Blanc Known in Italy, since roman times Most widely planted white grape in France, and makes a third of all white wine in Italy Undistinguished fresh, fruity wine with high acidity. Distilled to make the Cognac and Armagnac brandies in France V. Vinifera: RIESLING German variety Can be made bone dry to very sweet Light-bodied and highly acidic Very sweet wines can be made from grapes affected by noble rot: Botrytis cinerea OTHER WINE VARIETIES • Chenin blanc: (white) – very dry to sweet, fresh and fruity (LOIRE VALLEY, FRANCE; SOUTH AFRICA) • Gewurztraminer: (white) – spicy, dry to sweet, low acidity (ALSACE) • Semillon: (white) – dry to sweet, often desert wine (noble rot) (BORDEAUX; AUSTRALIA) 16 • Gamay noir: (red) – Light and fruity (BEAUJOLAIS, FRANCE) • Grenache: (red) – Fruity, low in tannins (SPAIN) • Syrah: (red) – very dark, full-bodied (RHONE; AUSTRALIA) Jura Mountains, France: the ONLY place they grow Poulsard Vitis Vinifera: Thompson Seedless -Most raisins come from Thompson Seedless -Usually tray dried Vitis continued • Vitis vinifera- European North American • Many Vitis species, but not usually considered high enough quality for wine • Usually strong tasting; used for juice, jellies and jams, wine – Vitis labrusca or “CONCORD GRAPE” • Some varieties have no usable berries – Vitis californica • Some have ‘odd’ flavors – Muscadinia rotundifolia (Florida, Texas: juice, jams, wine) • Some are used for Rootstocks – Vitis rupestris, etc. GRAPE SPECIES 17 • Vitis vinifera • Vitis californica: NO USABLE BERRIES • Vitis labrusca (Concord grapes) – Slip skin variety (welches grape Juice) • Muscadinia rotundifolia (Noble) – Grown in southern US – Bronze colored grapes – Ripen unevenly • Vitis riparia USED FOR ROOTSTOCKS • Vitis rupestris USED FOR ROOTSTOCKS Phylloxera The American insect that devastated the European vineyards (European vines had no resistance) A root louse – just visible to the naked eye How to fight Phylloxera? • Use the natural resistance of North American grape species and cross with V. vinifera to produce resistant hybrids V. vinifera x phylloxera-resistant species: HYBRID DIRECT PRODUCERS Hybrid Direct Hybrids • Catawba • Baco noir • Marechal Foch • Chancellor • Niagara • American Hybrid Species Norton=Cynthiana: the best American Species 18 (probably a cross between V. vinifera x V. aestivalis) Cornerstone of the Missouri wine industry for >150 years How to fight Phylloxera Continued • Take advantage of the natural resistance of North American grape species and use the native American species as rootstock V. vinifera + North American resistant species rootstock GRAFTING Scion Rootstick Science provided two solutions to Phylloxera: • Hybrid direct producers • Grafting The marketplace decided that grafting would be the solution of choice. Powdery Mildew Most widespread fungal disease in California vineyards More active on coastal areas Types of Rot 19 Botrytis Bunch Rot Botrytis “Noble Rot” Treating Fungal Diseases Attacks berries and leaves Control – Elemental Sulfur powder Allowed in organic farming – Copper sprays (Bordeaux mix) Allowed in organic farming with restrictions – Fungicide sprays – Dry climate – Open canopy Virus Diseases: Red Blotch- Discovered in 2008 and transmitted by grafts Leafroll- Causes red Pigmentation and can be spread by mealybugs -Ants farm mealybugs and protect them from predators Pierce’s Disease -Glassy Winged sharpshooters spreads the bacteria that causes the disease 20
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