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BSC 215 Week of 2/8

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Week of 2/8 BSC 215

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar

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About this Document

Lecture notes from the week of Feb 8
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
Tuesday February 9 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 7 continued Cytoskeleton and Organelles Golgi Apparatus small system of cisternae smaller and further away from the nucleus than the ER cisternae are wider than ER synthesizes carbohydrates adds carbohydrates to proteins received from ER glycoproteins Peroxisomes produced by rough ER contains oxygen free radicals dangerous to cell oxidizes toxic substances to hydrogen peroxide H202 breaks down fatty acids synthesizes some phospholipids many building blocks are available because of all of the molecules that have been broken down Lysosomes produced by golgi apparatus contain acid hydrolyses to digest bacteria and worn out cell components Endomembrane system any organelle in a cell that is surrounded by a membrane Nucleus Rough and smooth ER RER proteins are folded and modified side function is to produce peroxisomes SER synthesize lipids products from RER and SER are packaged in transport vesicles and merge with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Tuesday February 9 2016 Lipids and proteins are packaged in transport vesicles and fuse with the plasma membrane exocytosis if it is secreted the vesicles can also become part of the plasma membrane side function lysosomes Lysosomes and Peroxisomes are sideproducts of the system Cytoskeleton Actin amp Tubulin gives cells characteristic shape and size provides structural support for membrane nucleus and organelles ex holds the mitochondria in place can move organelles around the cell perform specialized functions ex phagocytosis allows movement of whole cells and movement of organelles within cells ex mitosis moves chromosomes cilia amp flagella 3 types of protein filaments make up animal cell cytoskeletons microfilaments shown in red in pictures made up of a protein called m Microfilaments are smaller than microtubules about 79 nm in diameter form terminal web extend into microvilli increase surface area of a cell for quicker transport milking pulling actin filaments in to bring whatever is outside the cell inside intermediate filaments shown in blue in pictures the protein component depends on the type of cell about 10 nm in diameter intermediate in diameter between microfilaments and microtubules Tuesday February 9 2016 give cell shape purely structural role microtubules green made up of protein called tubulin about 25 nm in diameter radiate from centrosomescentrioles hold organelles in place act as railway tracks for organelle movement movement axonemes cilia and flagella mitotic spindles Cellular Extensions Microvilli increase surface area plasma membrane extensions actin filamentsmicrofilaments connected to terminal web found in intestine kidneys Cilia primary cilia sends and receives signals we don t know much about this ever human cell has one secondary cilia move things on the surface of cells secondary cilia respiratory tract uterine tubes brain ventricles testes motile move beat in waves to propel substances must beat in a nonviscous nonsticky saline salty solution Cl pumps pump Cl through membrane active transport and Na follows by electrical attraction passive transport and water follows by osmosis This is how you create a saline layer ln cystic fibrosis chloride pumps are not embedded in the membrane This results in no saline solution and no movement of mucus axoneme made up of 2 central 9 peripheral microtubules 92 structure 9 surrounding and 2 in the middle peripheral microtubules extend as basaLbodgt into cel yenin arms use ATP energy to crawl up adjacent molecules causes bending and power stroke Flagellum movement only found in sperm cells in humans Tuesday February 9 2016 identical axoneme to secondary cilia 92 However flagella are much longer and stiffer beat in an undulating motion Pseudopods extends into environment actin filaments ex grabs bacteria from environment and sends to lysosomes Tuesday February 9 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 8 Cells and Genetics Nucleus Largest organelle because it contains the largest macromolecule DNA Mature RBCs do not have a nucleus primary job is to transport oxygen so the nucleus just takes up space that could be used for oxygen Some muscle and liver cells have multiple nuclei large cells Control center of the cell contains W sequence of nucleotides in DNA determines which proteins a particular cell will make by selectively expressing sets of genes Different cells produce different proteins Nuclear envelope double membrane outer membrane is continuous with rough ER 4 phospholipid layers ribosomes are embedded on the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear membrane and ER inner membrane rests on an intermediate filament scaffold lamina Nuclear pores facilitate active transport of RNA out proteins in and chemical messengers both Nucleoplasm cytoplasm of the nucleus contains salts nutrients nucleotides and enzymes Nucleolus ribosomal factory where ribosomes are produced rRNA is ribosomal RNA Chromatin 30 DNA 60 histone protein 10 RNA Thursday February 11 2016 Lecture 8 con t Nucleoplasm salts nutrients nucleotides and enzymes Nucleolus ribosomal factory It is not its own organelle it is just a specific area Chromatin One of the major ways we regulate which genes will be displayed in a cell is whether or not a gene is packaged into chromatin If it is highly packaged it will most likely not be displayed 30 DNA 60 histone protein 10 RNA DNA is negatively charged histones are positively charged A strand of DNA is wrapped twice around each histone protein and the histone proteins condense Chromatin condenses on a protein scaffold to form chromosomes Structure of a Chromosome You only see DNA condensed into chromosomes right before cell division 2 identical arms of DNA sister chromatids This is a result of DNA replication this only happens right before cell division Chromatids are joined at a centromere Each chromatid has a kinetochore at the centromere Components of a Nucleotide Pentose sugar ribose has an OH on the 2 carbon deoxyribose has an H on the 2 carbon Phosphate groups Thursday February 11 2016 attached to 5 carbon Nitrogenous base attached to 1 carbon 39 DNA guanine pairs with cytosine adenine pairs with thymine RNA guanine pairs with cytosine adenine pairs with m A G in DNA is exactly the same as a G in RNA Nucleotides come together through dehydration synthesis Associated enzyme DNARNA polymerase Bonds W The sequence of nucleotides determines what type of protein is made Hydrogen Bonds T always hydrogen bonds with A DNA There are always 2 hydrogen bonds U always hydrogen bonds with A RNA There are always 2 hydrogen bonds C always hydrogen bonds with G There are always 3 hydrogen bonds The width of DNA is always constant DNA strands are antiparallel DNARNA molecules grow from 5 to 3 Transcription making RNA from a DNA template only happens in the m DNA and RNA polymerase are found in the nucleus DNA occurs as a double helix in ces extremely stable Translation RNA dictates the sequence of amino acids to create a protein involves ribosomes gt Thursday February 11 2016 Types of RNA usually single stranded sometimes it folds back on itself to form partial double strands complimentary base pairing mRNA messenger RNA carries genetic information from nucleus to ribosome This is made during transcription tRNA transfer RNA component of ribosomes enzymatic and mRNA orientation activity rRNA ribosomal RNA transfers specific amino acids to specific mRNA sequences during translation made in the nucleolus microRNA gene regulatory and defense functions Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds Gene sequence of DNA that encodes for a sequence of RNA that plays a role in protein production Genome all the DNA contained within a typical cell The human genome is organized into 23 duplicated chromosomes DNA replication DNA gt DNA Transcription DNA gt RNA Translation RNA gt proteins One m triplet 3 bases codes for an amino acid Important for the test translation occurs by reading 5 to 3 AUG is the start codon


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