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Chapter 2: The Components of Matter (b)

by: Brianda Hickey

Chapter 2: The Components of Matter (b) CHEM-UA 125

Marketplace > NYU School of Medicine > Chemistry > CHEM-UA 125 > Chapter 2 The Components of Matter b
Brianda Hickey

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About this Document

These notes are a copy of the powerpoint covered in class with annotations.
General Chemistry I
Dr. Malgorzata (Margaret) Mandziuk
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-UA 125 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Dr. Malgorzata (Margaret) Mandziuk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at NYU School of Medicine.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
example: What is the symbol for the ion in the cartoon below? Ions -Proton = atomic number = gives identity Ions: number of protons and electrons are NOT balanced Removal of a proton or a neutron from an atomic nucleus requires huge -ignore number of neutrons (does not ask for isotpe) amount of energy (nuclear chemistry/physics). - (17) + (-18) =( -1) However, electrons can be transferred between atoms in chemical reactions. An atom may lose or gain electrons and form an (monatomic) Ion . Cl- If atom looses electron cation - positively charged ion anion - negatively charged ion If Atom gains electrons example: How many protons and how many electrons are there in each of the The charge of an ion (#p +# e )is written as a superscript on the right following ions? side of the element’s symbol. Cr 3+ 24p+ 21e- Cr 3+ S2 16p 18e- Atoms tend to gain or to lose electrons until they have the same number of electrons Charge of common monatomic ions: +1 -1 as the noble gas located closest to them on the periodic table. +2 +3 +4 -3 -2 (in terms of atomic number) +2 Memorize ions in Table 2.3 and 2.4. Monatomic cations are formed from metals + 2+ (Na , Ca , etc.,) Monatomic anions are formed from non-metals Naming: 2 (Cl ,S , etc.,) when only one kind of ion is formed, just add ion to the name of the element: Naming: example: change the ending of the element’s name to -ide. + Na – sodium ion example: 2 S – sulfide when a variety of ions are possible, distinguish them by including a Br – bromide Roman numeral indicating the charge: O2 –ox ide example: Fe2+ – iron(II) ion 3+ Fe – iron(III) ion How Covalent Bond is formed Molecular Compounds most of the substances we deal with in daily life; fairly soft, low to moderately high melting point, poor thermal and electrical conductance Low boiling point composed of molecules AM OLCULE is an assembly of two or more atoms (usually nonmetals) tightly bound together through covalent bondsg Bonds) Number of atoms of a given element is represented by a subscript on the right side of the element’s symbol. Ball and Stick Model examples: Red= oxygen glycine hydrogen Grey= carbon peroxide white= small oxygen Blue = Nitrogen Molecular Formula: Does not show structure, how the atoms bonded (indicates all atoms present in a molecC H NO H O 2 5 2 2 2 Empirical Formula: (givof each type in a molecule) of atoC2H 5O 2 HO O Each line = covalent bond Electronic cloud = purple H2N no information how atoms are distributed in space Structural Formula: OH HO OH (shows how atoms are bonded) glycine hydrogen peroxide Condensed NH 2H CO2H Structural formula: amino acid Systematic names of binary molecular compounds Common names to remember: Two nonmetals may form compounds with each other at di↵erent mole ratios, e.g., CO and CO .Thtimtbe determined experimentally. 2 rHe2tOaw Not be able to predict molecular formula, In a formula: must be given (or experiment) NH 3 ammonia PH 3 phosphine prefix indicates the number of atoms of a given element CH 4 methane SiH 4 silane memorize prefixes in Table 2.6 B 2 6 diborane name of the first element (less electronegative) remains unchanged. C 6 6 benzene Exam - 20 point question about naming ending of the second element (more electronegative) is replaced by You must know: sux -ide. How to name a compound given a formula or how to write a formula given a compound’s name. example: N2O 5 dinitrogen pentoxide CO carbon monoxide


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