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HY 315 Week 4 Notes

by: Emily Notetaker

HY 315 Week 4 Notes HY 315

Emily Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This covers the section of notes for February 2nd & 4th
The Civil War
Dr. Kohl
Class Notes
history, civil war, North, South, american, Union, Confederate
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 315 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kohl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see The Civil War in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
Week 4 Notes 2/9/16 4:18 PM February 2, 2016 Maryland (continued) • For troops to get to DC, they had to get through Baltimore th o 6 Massachusetts o each railroad was separate and the railroads did not meet up th o when the 6 Massachusetts got to Baltimore, they had to march through town – a hotbed for secession ▯ people were shooting at the troops, and troops were firing back at the civilians ▯ after this, Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus • the secessionists in MD were arrested, paving the way for Maryland to become a Union state Kentucky • Critical state – extends for hundreds of miles against the Ohio River (border between slave states and free states) o Lincoln once said “I would like to have God on my side, but I have to have Kentucky on my side” ▯ If it sided with the confederacy, the Ohio River would be the confederacy border, making it very defendable ▯ If it sided with the Union, the only thing separating the Union from the Confederacy is an imaginary line • Legislature is unionist, the governor is confederate o Lincoln & Jefferson Davis were both born in Kentucky o Henry Clay – the great compromiser – was also born in Kentucky ▯ Had 3 sons fight for the Union, 4 fought for the CSA ▯ This is how divided KY was o Consequently, KY declared itself neutral ▯ Lincoln knew neutrality couldn’t exist, but didn’t do anything because he knew how easy it would be for KY to sway their favor to either side ▯ Confederacy eventually violated this neutrality • KY consequently tilted over to the Union • Pro-southern convention declared KY a confederate state and wrote a new confederate legislature (was then run out of the state) o This is why some people consider KY and MO part of the confederacy, even though they really weren’t Missouri • The most westerly and turbulent- it was the gateway to the West o St. Louis (big city) was for the confederates o Union forces eventually force the confederate governor and government out of the state ▯ Remains divided as a result – lots of guerilla warfare occurs & gunfire between citizens • nobody ever really controls the state o gunfighters like Frank & Jesse James come out of Missouri after the Civil War and move West West Virginia • The was no West Virginia at the beginning of the war – it was all Virginia • Always had an animosity to the East o When Virginia seceded, they seceded from Virginia ▯ The only way to legitimize this is if the Virginian government grants permission – so they find a loophole ▯ WV creates its own government and states that it is the true government of Virginia, since Virginia seceded and is no longer in the Union and grants itself permission ▯ Moves government to Alexandria (right outside of DC) and becomes West Virginia Border States • Mostly all for the Union, if not all they are divided o 240,000 for Union, 101,000 fight for CSA • these states are important because of the higher population of white males • irony of the final balance o the final demarcation is not the line between slave states and free states – most of the border states were slave states ▯ at first, the war was about preserving the Union & the border states supported the Union ▯ if it had been at first about ending slavery, the border states maybe would have gone the other way Northern Advantagees • Manpower (4 to 1) o White males of military age • Industrial superiority (11 to 1) o Manufacturing output in dollar amount ▯ Massachusetts out produced all of CSA ▯ New York and Pennsylvania produced double the CSA o Firearm production (31 to 1) o Clothing production – textiles (18 to 1) • Railroad mileage (2.4 to 1) • Shipping (16 to 1) o Confederacy owned virtually no commercial shipping • Eventually put about 2 million men out of the 4.6 million available o Virtually every man of military age had to fight in the CSA (roughly 900,000 out of 1,000,000) • Yet, most people thought the North had no chance Southern Advantage • Limited objectives o Simply wanted to be left alone (to protect its borders) ▯ North had to invade, occupy, and hold on to the South ▯ Defending your land is easier than invading someone else’s land • Agrarian way of life o Could absorb punishment easily – self-sufficient ▯ Wasn’t dependent upon electricity, gas, water, etc. ▯ Union troops would have to conquer plantation by plantation, and then occupy it – then you’d have no army left to fight • Morale o The South was defending its homeland ▯ “Yankees are invading” is easy to get Southerners roused up ▯ easier for Union morale to fail – Southerners have everything to lose • Northern market (they thought) o The South was a very important market for the North ▯ Believed it would make the Northern market collapse if they cut themselves off • Cotton (they thought) o They supplied 4/5 of cotton for the textile industry of Britain and France ▯ Believed they’d help the South escape defeat because of this ▯ Didn’t work out that way because in 1860, foreseeing a civil war, Britain and France stockpiled cotton ▯ It became difficult to get cotton out of the South, so they turned to other suppliers (Egypt & India) ▯ This hurts the South’s economy for the rest of its history • Northern Divisions (they thought) o In some way they think this is a Republican’s war, not a Yankee war o Believes that the Democrats in the North will undermine the war effort ▯ Comes to be “war democrats” and “peace democrats” ▯ After it becomes a war about slavery, Lincoln is walking on tightropes with the democrats • This did make it difficult – but Lincoln did hold everything together which is why he’s considered our greatest president Organizing the Armies 2/9/16 4:18 PM Types of troops • Regular army o Spread out in 79 different forts o Was not expanded considerably, kept separate • Militia o Citizen troops under state control o Could be called up for 90 days for federal service ▯ Lincoln called for 75,000 militia ▯ Knew this would not suffice and that the war wouldn’t just be 3 months long so… • Volunteer army rd o Lincoln asked on May 3 ▯ For 40,000 for a 3-year term ▯ By July, 200,000 men had volunteered o Lincoln called congress into a special session July 4,1861 th ▯ In the 19 century, the legislature was not due to serve until December of 1861 ▯ The old legislature ended when Lincoln was inaugurated • Lincoln is the entire federal government at this point ▯ Asks them to ratify unilaterally the decisions he’s made while they haven’t been there ▯ They ratify 500,000 men – staggering accomplishment February 4, 2016 • Volunteer army (continued) o The war was mainly fought with these Raising the armies • Prominent local citizens raise companies & regiments • Communities would go to war together o This was a big deal – in cities, ethnic groups would go together as well (Irish, Jewish, etc.) ▯ People knew each other – gave the war a different kind of flavor ▯ Created difficulties • A unit could get caught in the wrong place & a whole town could get killed o There is now rules prohibiting too many family members/members of the same community in a group • Had an effect on discipline o Allowed men to elect their own officers • Election of officers o Most people who are elected are community leaders o All of a sudden your neighbor who you grew up with & who was your equal before the war is now your commander ▯ Hard for them to exercise discipline because of what might happen back home o To some degree this created a real unity and made it hard to act badly because everyone knew you – but still had a negative effect on discipline ▯ More guys from big cities would abandon battles than guys from small cities o Had to be confirmed by the state governor ▯ Not too much trouble because they wanted officers who the men picked and respected • Medical inspection o Pretty cursory ▯ One woman masqueraded as a man & fought through the Civil War - & nobody knew • Making larger o Everything up to a regiment was raised in the state ▯ 1000 men in one regiment – 10 companies of 100 men st ▯ 1 Pennsylvania volunteer regiment (title example) ▯ governors had control over regiments • were then sent to federal camps to become larger units Army branches • Infantry o Basic ground troops o Most men in are in these o 80% U.S. army, 75% CSA • Cavalry o Mountain troops & ride horses o 15-20% of the army • Artillery o Fire cannons o 5-6% of the army o heavy artillery ▯ very large cannons in fixed positions (along the coasts & in forts) o light artillery ▯ cannons taken into battle ▯ most concerned with these Infantry organization • Company (100 men) o Use letters as identifiers • Regiment (1000 men, 10 companies) o Most important o If you asked a soldier where they fought, they’d tell you their regimental identity o Largest unit that comes out of the state • Brigade (3-5 regiments, ~3000 men) o Basic fighting forces • Division (3-4 brigades, ~10,000 men) • Corps (3-4 divisions, ~10,000-20,000 men) • Army (2 or more corps) o 16 Union armies, 23 CSA armies ▯ CSA named departments after states (political) ▯ Union named after rivers (geographical) ▯ i.e. Army of the Potomac – most talked about Union army ▯ i.e. Army of Northern Virginia – Lee’s army (most famous CSA army) ▯ both sides have a Tennessee army • CSA: Tennessee Army • Union: The Tennessee Army ▯ You see this in the naming of battles • CSA would name battles after surrounding towns, Union would name them after rivers or landmarks o Battle of Manassas vs Battle of Bull Run o Could have as many as 140,000 men o Armies & corps are important ▯ Armies fight the battles ▯ Corps are the huge building blocks of armies ▯ Commanders just below Lee & Grant • i.e. Stonewall Jackson commanded a corps Cavalry organization • Regiment: 5 battalions o Colonel (leader) • Battalions (squadrons): 2 cos. o Major • Company (troop): 100 men o Captain Heavy Artillery • Regiment: 12 companies o Headed by a colonel • Battalion: 4 companies o Headed by a major • Company: 150 men o Headed by a captain o Late in the war, they turn them into infantry reg. General officers • Appointed by congress and the president • Highest level • Union o Lieutenant general (highest rank) ▯ Only had 1 – U. Grant ~ 1864 ▯ First one the army had since George Washington o Major general o Brigadier general • CSA o General ▯ commanded the whole army – most famous was Lee o lieutenant general ▯ corps (Stonewall Jackson) o major general ▯ lead divisions o brigadier general ▯ commands brigade • there were honorary ranks o brevet ranks ▯ don’t get the salary or command more than your actual rank ▯ Winfield Scott had the brevet rank of lt. general, but Grant was the only true lt. general Commissioned officers • Appointed by the state • You can resign nd o Nobody below a 2 lieutenant o Regimental officers ▯ Colonel ▯ Lieutenant colonel ▯ Major o Company officers ▯ Captain ▯ 1 lieutenant nd ▯ 2 lieutenant • non-commissioned officers (cannot resign) o sergeants o corporal o privates ▯ by far the most common foot soldiers • CSA didn’t have a federal army to begin with o They created one – existed largely on paper o Militia also existed – merges with volunteer army eventually ▯ Mobilizes early – mass volunteers for volunteer armies • Regiments dwindle from day 1 o Becomes a problem eventually o By Gettysburg, most regiments had between 300-350 men o Very hard to keep the regiments at an appropriate number o New regiments were formed for new volunteers ▯ No already formed regiment wants new guys who haven’t fought as much (“Where were you?”) o This is why the draft is formed ▯ CSA army is formed in March 1861 – they start the draft early Confederate conscription • April 1862: white, male citizen ages 18-35 (3 years) • September 1862: raise the age to 45 • February 1864: raised/expanded the age 17-50 o This was a problem because the CSA was formed out of an issue of states’ rights ▯ Believed the federal government should stay out of states’ business • Exemptions o State militia officers ▯ Useful on the home front for home defense o Any teachers with 20 or more students o One white man exempt for every 20 slaves owned ▯ Bitterly resented – fighting to keep slavery alive but the slave owners don’t have to fight o Key workers in industry, agriculture, & transport o Clergy ▯ Some served as chaplains though o Pacifists o Substitution ▯ If you were drafted, you could hire an able-bodied person to take your place ▯ Once again, this solution was only available to the rich people ▯ Abolished in December of 1863 o Medical unfitness o Fleeing the state • Ultimately – 25% made up of draftees o 50,000 to 75,000 send substitutions • by 1864 – everyone in the army has to stay the duration of the war For Union drafts • July 1863 o They tell adult white male citizens ages 20-45 to enroll yourself in a draft ▯ Created draft districts ▯ Distributed the need for soldiers between districts • If they volunteer, great, if not, they were taken o There was a stigma to being drafted ▯ Started paying bounties to states and federal governments ▯ Main effectiveness is getting people to volunteer o Only 8% were substitutes or draftees ▯ Because being drafted threated a bad reputation • 1864: March, July, & December o methods: ▯ exemptions: far fewer than CSA ▯ medical – physically or mentally unfit ▯ compassionate grounds • if you were the sole caretaker of your grandmother, etc. ▯ substitution ▯ commutation ▯ abolished July 1864 ▯ if you paid $300 you could get out of the draft • brought substitution way down – more people still went (if you could pay $300 to get out, substitutes would have to cost less than $300) • generalized statement: people in the army did NOT like draftees o mainly the lazy and cowardly soldiers 2/9/16 4:18 PM


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