HY 315 Week 4 Notes
HY 315 Week 4 Notes HY 315
Popular in The Civil War
Popular in History
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 315 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kohl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see The Civil War in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Week 4 Notes 2/9/16 4:18 PM February 2, 2016 Maryland (continued) • For troops to get to DC, they had to get through Baltimore th o 6 Massachusetts o each railroad was separate and the railroads did not meet up th o when the 6 Massachusetts got to Baltimore, they had to march through town – a hotbed for secession ▯ people were shooting at the troops, and troops were firing back at the civilians ▯ after this, Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus • the secessionists in MD were arrested, paving the way for Maryland to become a Union state Kentucky • Critical state – extends for hundreds of miles against the Ohio River (border between slave states and free states) o Lincoln once said “I would like to have God on my side, but I have to have Kentucky on my side” ▯ If it sided with the confederacy, the Ohio River would be the confederacy border, making it very defendable ▯ If it sided with the Union, the only thing separating the Union from the Confederacy is an imaginary line • Legislature is unionist, the governor is confederate o Lincoln & Jefferson Davis were both born in Kentucky o Henry Clay – the great compromiser – was also born in Kentucky ▯ Had 3 sons fight for the Union, 4 fought for the CSA ▯ This is how divided KY was o Consequently, KY declared itself neutral ▯ Lincoln knew neutrality couldn’t exist, but didn’t do anything because he knew how easy it would be for KY to sway their favor to either side ▯ Confederacy eventually violated this neutrality • KY consequently tilted over to the Union • Pro-southern convention declared KY a confederate state and wrote a new confederate legislature (was then run out of the state) o This is why some people consider KY and MO part of the confederacy, even though they really weren’t Missouri • The most westerly and turbulent- it was the gateway to the West o St. Louis (big city) was for the confederates o Union forces eventually force the confederate governor and government out of the state ▯ Remains divided as a result – lots of guerilla warfare occurs & gunfire between citizens • nobody ever really controls the state o gunfighters like Frank & Jesse James come out of Missouri after the Civil War and move West West Virginia • The was no West Virginia at the beginning of the war – it was all Virginia • Always had an animosity to the East o When Virginia seceded, they seceded from Virginia ▯ The only way to legitimize this is if the Virginian government grants permission – so they find a loophole ▯ WV creates its own government and states that it is the true government of Virginia, since Virginia seceded and is no longer in the Union and grants itself permission ▯ Moves government to Alexandria (right outside of DC) and becomes West Virginia Border States • Mostly all for the Union, if not all they are divided o 240,000 for Union, 101,000 fight for CSA • these states are important because of the higher population of white males • irony of the final balance o the final demarcation is not the line between slave states and free states – most of the border states were slave states ▯ at first, the war was about preserving the Union & the border states supported the Union ▯ if it had been at first about ending slavery, the border states maybe would have gone the other way Northern Advantagees • Manpower (4 to 1) o White males of military age • Industrial superiority (11 to 1) o Manufacturing output in dollar amount ▯ Massachusetts out produced all of CSA ▯ New York and Pennsylvania produced double the CSA o Firearm production (31 to 1) o Clothing production – textiles (18 to 1) • Railroad mileage (2.4 to 1) • Shipping (16 to 1) o Confederacy owned virtually no commercial shipping • Eventually put about 2 million men out of the 4.6 million available o Virtually every man of military age had to fight in the CSA (roughly 900,000 out of 1,000,000) • Yet, most people thought the North had no chance Southern Advantage • Limited objectives o Simply wanted to be left alone (to protect its borders) ▯ North had to invade, occupy, and hold on to the South ▯ Defending your land is easier than invading someone else’s land • Agrarian way of life o Could absorb punishment easily – self-sufficient ▯ Wasn’t dependent upon electricity, gas, water, etc. ▯ Union troops would have to conquer plantation by plantation, and then occupy it – then you’d have no army left to fight • Morale o The South was defending its homeland ▯ “Yankees are invading” is easy to get Southerners roused up ▯ easier for Union morale to fail – Southerners have everything to lose • Northern market (they thought) o The South was a very important market for the North ▯ Believed it would make the Northern market collapse if they cut themselves off • Cotton (they thought) o They supplied 4/5 of cotton for the textile industry of Britain and France ▯ Believed they’d help the South escape defeat because of this ▯ Didn’t work out that way because in 1860, foreseeing a civil war, Britain and France stockpiled cotton ▯ It became difficult to get cotton out of the South, so they turned to other suppliers (Egypt & India) ▯ This hurts the South’s economy for the rest of its history • Northern Divisions (they thought) o In some way they think this is a Republican’s war, not a Yankee war o Believes that the Democrats in the North will undermine the war effort ▯ Comes to be “war democrats” and “peace democrats” ▯ After it becomes a war about slavery, Lincoln is walking on tightropes with the democrats • This did make it difficult – but Lincoln did hold everything together which is why he’s considered our greatest president Organizing the Armies 2/9/16 4:18 PM Types of troops • Regular army o Spread out in 79 different forts o Was not expanded considerably, kept separate • Militia o Citizen troops under state control o Could be called up for 90 days for federal service ▯ Lincoln called for 75,000 militia ▯ Knew this would not suffice and that the war wouldn’t just be 3 months long so… • Volunteer army rd o Lincoln asked on May 3 ▯ For 40,000 for a 3-year term ▯ By July, 200,000 men had volunteered o Lincoln called congress into a special session July 4,1861 th ▯ In the 19 century, the legislature was not due to serve until December of 1861 ▯ The old legislature ended when Lincoln was inaugurated • Lincoln is the entire federal government at this point ▯ Asks them to ratify unilaterally the decisions he’s made while they haven’t been there ▯ They ratify 500,000 men – staggering accomplishment February 4, 2016 • Volunteer army (continued) o The war was mainly fought with these Raising the armies • Prominent local citizens raise companies & regiments • Communities would go to war together o This was a big deal – in cities, ethnic groups would go together as well (Irish, Jewish, etc.) ▯ People knew each other – gave the war a different kind of flavor ▯ Created difficulties • A unit could get caught in the wrong place & a whole town could get killed o There is now rules prohibiting too many family members/members of the same community in a group • Had an effect on discipline o Allowed men to elect their own officers • Election of officers o Most people who are elected are community leaders o All of a sudden your neighbor who you grew up with & who was your equal before the war is now your commander ▯ Hard for them to exercise discipline because of what might happen back home o To some degree this created a real unity and made it hard to act badly because everyone knew you – but still had a negative effect on discipline ▯ More guys from big cities would abandon battles than guys from small cities o Had to be confirmed by the state governor ▯ Not too much trouble because they wanted officers who the men picked and respected • Medical inspection o Pretty cursory ▯ One woman masqueraded as a man & fought through the Civil War - & nobody knew • Making larger o Everything up to a regiment was raised in the state ▯ 1000 men in one regiment – 10 companies of 100 men st ▯ 1 Pennsylvania volunteer regiment (title example) ▯ governors had control over regiments • were then sent to federal camps to become larger units Army branches • Infantry o Basic ground troops o Most men in are in these o 80% U.S. army, 75% CSA • Cavalry o Mountain troops & ride horses o 15-20% of the army • Artillery o Fire cannons o 5-6% of the army o heavy artillery ▯ very large cannons in fixed positions (along the coasts & in forts) o light artillery ▯ cannons taken into battle ▯ most concerned with these Infantry organization • Company (100 men) o Use letters as identifiers • Regiment (1000 men, 10 companies) o Most important o If you asked a soldier where they fought, they’d tell you their regimental identity o Largest unit that comes out of the state • Brigade (3-5 regiments, ~3000 men) o Basic fighting forces • Division (3-4 brigades, ~10,000 men) • Corps (3-4 divisions, ~10,000-20,000 men) • Army (2 or more corps) o 16 Union armies, 23 CSA armies ▯ CSA named departments after states (political) ▯ Union named after rivers (geographical) ▯ i.e. Army of the Potomac – most talked about Union army ▯ i.e. Army of Northern Virginia – Lee’s army (most famous CSA army) ▯ both sides have a Tennessee army • CSA: Tennessee Army • Union: The Tennessee Army ▯ You see this in the naming of battles • CSA would name battles after surrounding towns, Union would name them after rivers or landmarks o Battle of Manassas vs Battle of Bull Run o Could have as many as 140,000 men o Armies & corps are important ▯ Armies fight the battles ▯ Corps are the huge building blocks of armies ▯ Commanders just below Lee & Grant • i.e. Stonewall Jackson commanded a corps Cavalry organization • Regiment: 5 battalions o Colonel (leader) • Battalions (squadrons): 2 cos. o Major • Company (troop): 100 men o Captain Heavy Artillery • Regiment: 12 companies o Headed by a colonel • Battalion: 4 companies o Headed by a major • Company: 150 men o Headed by a captain o Late in the war, they turn them into infantry reg. General officers • Appointed by congress and the president • Highest level • Union o Lieutenant general (highest rank) ▯ Only had 1 – U. Grant ~ 1864 ▯ First one the army had since George Washington o Major general o Brigadier general • CSA o General ▯ commanded the whole army – most famous was Lee o lieutenant general ▯ corps (Stonewall Jackson) o major general ▯ lead divisions o brigadier general ▯ commands brigade • there were honorary ranks o brevet ranks ▯ don’t get the salary or command more than your actual rank ▯ Winfield Scott had the brevet rank of lt. general, but Grant was the only true lt. general Commissioned officers • Appointed by the state • You can resign nd o Nobody below a 2 lieutenant o Regimental officers ▯ Colonel ▯ Lieutenant colonel ▯ Major o Company officers ▯ Captain ▯ 1 lieutenant nd ▯ 2 lieutenant • non-commissioned officers (cannot resign) o sergeants o corporal o privates ▯ by far the most common foot soldiers • CSA didn’t have a federal army to begin with o They created one – existed largely on paper o Militia also existed – merges with volunteer army eventually ▯ Mobilizes early – mass volunteers for volunteer armies • Regiments dwindle from day 1 o Becomes a problem eventually o By Gettysburg, most regiments had between 300-350 men o Very hard to keep the regiments at an appropriate number o New regiments were formed for new volunteers ▯ No already formed regiment wants new guys who haven’t fought as much (“Where were you?”) o This is why the draft is formed ▯ CSA army is formed in March 1861 – they start the draft early Confederate conscription • April 1862: white, male citizen ages 18-35 (3 years) • September 1862: raise the age to 45 • February 1864: raised/expanded the age 17-50 o This was a problem because the CSA was formed out of an issue of states’ rights ▯ Believed the federal government should stay out of states’ business • Exemptions o State militia officers ▯ Useful on the home front for home defense o Any teachers with 20 or more students o One white man exempt for every 20 slaves owned ▯ Bitterly resented – fighting to keep slavery alive but the slave owners don’t have to fight o Key workers in industry, agriculture, & transport o Clergy ▯ Some served as chaplains though o Pacifists o Substitution ▯ If you were drafted, you could hire an able-bodied person to take your place ▯ Once again, this solution was only available to the rich people ▯ Abolished in December of 1863 o Medical unfitness o Fleeing the state • Ultimately – 25% made up of draftees o 50,000 to 75,000 send substitutions • by 1864 – everyone in the army has to stay the duration of the war For Union drafts • July 1863 o They tell adult white male citizens ages 20-45 to enroll yourself in a draft ▯ Created draft districts ▯ Distributed the need for soldiers between districts • If they volunteer, great, if not, they were taken o There was a stigma to being drafted ▯ Started paying bounties to states and federal governments ▯ Main effectiveness is getting people to volunteer o Only 8% were substitutes or draftees ▯ Because being drafted threated a bad reputation • 1864: March, July, & December o methods: ▯ exemptions: far fewer than CSA ▯ medical – physically or mentally unfit ▯ compassionate grounds • if you were the sole caretaker of your grandmother, etc. ▯ substitution ▯ commutation ▯ abolished July 1864 ▯ if you paid $300 you could get out of the draft • brought substitution way down – more people still went (if you could pay $300 to get out, substitutes would have to cost less than $300) • generalized statement: people in the army did NOT like draftees o mainly the lazy and cowardly soldiers 2/9/16 4:18 PM
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