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p 106-121

by: Stephanie Robertson

p 106-121 Psychology 110

Stephanie Robertson
GPA 3.6

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p 106-121
Anastasia Kerr-German
Class Notes
Kerr-German, Psychology 110, Anastasia
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
P 106-121 and 671-673 MAPPING THE MIND  Phrenology- assessed enlargements of the skull in an attempt to map the brain. Founded by Franz Joseph Gall in the 1800s. Was falsifiable, it turned out the skull does not match the brain’s shape closely enough to predict as many psychological characteristics as they thought.  Brain Damage- brain damage or lesion studies have taught us a lot about how the brain works and which areas control what o Neuropsychologists- use psychological tests to determine the location of brain malfunction.  Electrical Stimulation- electrical shock applied to certain areas of the brain during surgery causes specific physical reactions, indicating which areas control what o Electroencephalograph- (EEG) measures electrical activity created by the brain. Certain patterns tell us what the brain is doing. Can be slightly inaccurate and hard to measure due to the fact that they measure only electrical impulses that reach the scalp. Hard to precisely pinpoint the cause of the impulse due to the skin, skull, meninges and fluid in the way.  Brain scans- neuro imaging o CT (computed tomography)- CT is a 3-D reconstruction of multiple X-rays. o MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- shows structural differences in soft tissues within the 3-D image by measuring the release of water after being exposed to magnetic field. o PET (Position Emission Tomography)- type of functional imaging that detects changes in brain activity. Patient is injected with glucose-like radioactive fluid. Movement and use of fluid can then be observed with a scanner as areas of the brain become active. o fMRI (functional MRI)- measures change in blood oxygenation. Areas of the brain have more oxygen when they are operating. Downside is that it is extremely sensitive to movement.  BOLD- blood oxygenation level dependent o Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation- strong pulses of magnetic fields applied to the brain. Stops or enhances brain activity temporarily. Pinpoints which areas of the brain control what and may be used to treat psychiatric disorders like depression. o Magnetoencephalography (MEG)- tracks rapid changes in electrical activity of by measuring magnetic changes on the skull o We have to be careful when interpreting brain scans because an area that “lights up” may actually be inhibiting action instead of promoting it. o Some findings may be artifacts, not repeatable and not significant.  10% Myth- “we only use 10% of our brains” o early problems determining brain function encouraged this myth o William James wrote that people only fulfill small % of potential o In truth, every part of the brain has some function.  Localization of Function- finding which areas of the brain work during a certain task. Many brain functions cannot be specifically pinpointed to one unique area. o Ex: Brocca’s area is important in speech but also activates when we notice a music note that is off key  Lateralization- tendency for each brain function to rely on one hemisphere more than the other. o Split-Brain Surgery- surgery where corpus collosum (part of the brain connecting the two hemispheres) is severed.  Roger Sperry studied individuals who underwent this surgery to give them relief from seizures. He noticed that each hemisphere its own abilities which were somewhat fragmented from the other.  The idea that there are Left-Brained and Right-Brained people is also a myth despite the fact that each side of our brains do exhibit different functions. We all use both sides of our brains. We might use specific areas more than others but it could be specific areas on either side. OUR GENETIC MAKEUP  Chromosomes- thin threads inside the nucleus that carry genes (humans have 46)  Genes- genetic material that carries DNA  DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid, double helix that stores all the info a cell needs to reproduce  Genome- Full set of chromosomes and traits associated.  Human Genome Project- defined characteristics for all human genes. 2  Genotype- genes transmitted from our parents to us  Phenotype- our observable traits (genotype can’t always be inferred from phenotype because of dominant and recessive genes)  Dominant- genes that mask the effect of others  Recessive- only noticeable without a dominant gene o Ex: two people with brown hair can have a redheaded child because red hair might be a recessive gene that both of them carry  Adaptations- characteristics that make an organism better suited to their environment. Some adaptations are physical (like thumbs) and others are behavioral (like aggression). Organisms with successful adaptations have greater fitness. o Fitness- Better chance of passing on their genes o Our cortex has adapted over millions of years to be more complex and flexible than other animals. o Around 3 or 4 million years ago, our genome randomly changed, severing our ties with apes and causing our brains to triple in size. o Our brains are bigger than any other animal in proportion to our body size. Second to dolphins.  Behavioral Genetics- look at the role of genes and the environment in behavior. o Heritability- extent that genes contribute to differences between individuals. Usually a %  Ex: Height is 70-80% due to our genes and 20-30% because of our environment  Heritability applies to everyone, not just one person.  Heritability can change. The environment can begin to have a greater affect or can have less affect at any time.  Reaction Range- how greatly the genes limit change as a response to the environment  Even if a trait has 100% heritability, it can still be changed. o Family Studies- examining characteristics that “run” in families. Drawback is that relatives usually share similar environments. o Twin Studies- There are two type of twins, monozygotic (those that came from the same zygote/“egg”) and dizygotic (fraternal-two separate eggs fertilized at once). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their DNA and dizygotic share about 50%. Twin studies claim that if monozygotic twins are more alike on a 3 characteristic than fraternal twins, then the characteristic is genetically influenced since monozygotic twins share their DNA. o Adoption Studies- Studies how greatly adopted children resemble their adoptive parents versus their biological parents. A problem with this is that adoption agencies usually place children in a home similar to their biological home. 4


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