Introduction to Psychology week 4 notes
Introduction to Psychology week 4 notes Psych 111
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
02/01/16 (lecture) 99:50 am Memory continued Hierarchies Help organize information to make optimal use of working memory capacity Graphic organizer Effortful processing Used to encode explicit memories Several strategies: Mnemonics Hierarchies Spaced/Distributed practice Deep/Semantic processing Spacing effect Massed (cramming) practice is less effective than distributed (spaced) practice Note Review Challenge! Review your lecture notes before the next lecture Spend at least 510 minutes Use your book or talk to a TA or Dr. Clinton about anything you don’t understnad If you do not find this helpful, write a onepage (typed, double spaced) description of how you did this and it didn’t work for you and Dr. Clinton will give you 2 bonus points What’s one of the best ways to learn? Practice testing Quizzes Flashcards Questions at the end of each module (in the book) Peer testing Effortful Processing Strategies Deep/Semantic processing Two types of memory: Explicit Consciously aware Effortful Processing Implicit Not consciously aware Automatic processing Procedural memories Time, space and frequency Procedural memories Implicit memories More automatic processing Details about Space “What did I come upstairs for?” Time “When’s the last time I had my _____” Frequency “That’s the third time today Dr. Clinton’s had problems with her laptop!” Module 25 Storing and Retrieving Memories ExplicitMemory System: Hippocampus and Frontal Lobes Is dedicated to explicit memory formation Registers and temporarily holds elements of explicit memories Alcohol impairs the hippocampus Basal Ganglia (procedural memory) Priming Associations are encoded with memories sensory information related information Priming: implicit memory in which exposure to one stimulus affects response to another stimulus Priming is why retrieval cues work You remember much more information that is provided in the cues ContextDependant memory Memories can be primed by context StateDependant memory What we learn in one state we are more likely to remember in the same state Mood congruent BOTTOM LINE Use operant conditions NOT state dependent to do best on the exam Positive reinforcement AFTER studying Try to study for and take tests in a good mood Encoding Specificity Principle (see note slides pp. 26) Overlap determines retrieval success Serial Position Effect Immediate recall: first and more recent items Delayed recall: first items 02/03/16 (lecture) 99:50 am Serial position effect reciting information immediately after being told it, you will remember the beginning and the ending of the list. Immediate recall Primacy effect (words at the beginning) rehearsal Referency effect (words at the end) still in working memory Delayed recall Primacy effect only (words at the beginning) rehearsal Try to encode and not forget… Encoding failure What we don’t notice, we won’t encode and remember later Only so much our brains can take in! Storage decay Causes explicit memories to be inaccessible Use it or lose it! Ebbings memory effect You will forget most of the information you learn after 2 days but what you do remember you will remember for a long time Retrieval failure Memory is there, but hard to find “tip of the tongue” phenomenon When we can’t quite access memories Retrieval can help (priming/hint) Interference New memories and old memories getting confused! Proactive: Occurs when older memory makes it more difficult to remember new information Retroactive: Occurs when new learning disrupts memory for older information Motivated forgetting Who ate the cookies? We don’t want to remember everything (eating all of the cookies) Misinformation effect Misleading information has corrupted one’s memory of an event “We don’t just retrieve memories, we reweave them” reconsolidation We can not remember what we don’t encode Bottom line Generally, forgetting is a useful cognitive function: Like only buying things you want/need (encoding failure) Cleaning out clutter (storage decay) Can be annoying if you can’t find something you know is there somewhere! (retrieval failure) When do we forget? Forgetting can occur at any memory stage As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it Sensory memory, Working/short term memory, long term storage, retrieval/longterm memory Listen to the list of words Bed, awake, night, dream, comfort, sleep (?) snore Inducting false memories via semantic associations Verbs influence recall Take home point Memory is a reconstructive process in which gaps are “filled in” based in information that may or may not be true Memory is unreliable and impressionable Corroborating evidence should be used Source amnesia/Source misattribution Forgetting where an idea came from Piaget Inadvertent plagiarism Bosnian national anthem and theme song from “Animal House” 02/04/16 (lab) 88:45 am usually 99:50 am Today we worked on our Dunlosky papers and did group work asking any questions we may have about the paper or assignment process The Dunlosky et al. paper is due February 26th 2016 submitted on blackboard as a .doc, .docx, or .pdf
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