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Introduction to Psychology week 4 notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology week 4 notes Psych 111

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About this Document

These notes cover week 4 material from lecture including parts of module 24 and module 25.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
02/01/16 (lecture) 9­9:50 am Memory continued ­ Hierarchies ­ Help organize information to make optimal use of working  memory capacity ­ Graphic organizer ­ Effortful processing ­ Used to encode explicit memories ­ Several strategies: ­ Mnemonics ­ Hierarchies ­ Spaced/Distributed practice ­ Deep/Semantic processing ­ Spacing effect ­ Massed (cramming) practice is less effective than distributed  (spaced) practice ­ Note Review Challenge! ­ Review your lecture notes before the next lecture ­ Spend at least 5­10 minutes ­ Use your book or talk to a TA or Dr. Clinton about anything you  don’t understnad ­ If you do not find this helpful, write a one­page (typed, double  spaced) description of how you did this and it didn’t work for you and Dr. Clinton will give you 2 bonus points ­ What’s one of the best ways to learn? ­ Practice testing ­ Quizzes ­ Flashcards ­ Questions at the end of each module (in the book) ­ Peer testing ­ Effortful Processing Strategies ­ Deep/Semantic processing ­ Two types of memory: ­ Explicit ­ Consciously aware ­ Effortful Processing ­ Implicit ­ Not consciously aware ­ Automatic processing ­ Procedural memories ­ Time, space and frequency ­ Procedural memories ­ Implicit memories ­ More automatic processing ­ Details about ­ Space “What did I come upstairs for?” ­ Time “When’s the last time I had my _____” ­ Frequency “That’s the third time today Dr.  Clinton’s had problems with her laptop!” Module 25 Storing and Retrieving Memories ­ Explicit­Memory System: Hippocampus and Frontal Lobes ­ Is dedicated to explicit memory formation ­ Registers and temporarily holds elements of explicit memories ­ Alcohol impairs the hippocampus ­ Basal Ganglia (procedural memory) ­ Priming ­ Associations are encoded with memories ­ sensory information ­ related information ­ Priming: implicit memory in which exposure to one stimulus  affects response to another stimulus ­ Priming is why retrieval cues work ­ You remember much more information that is provided in the cues ­ Context­Dependant memory ­ Memories can be primed by context ­ State­Dependant memory ­ What we learn in one state we are more likely to remember in the  same state ­ Mood congruent ­ BOTTOM LINE ­ Use operant conditions NOT state dependent to do best on the  exam ­ Positive reinforcement AFTER studying ­ Try to study for and take tests in a good mood ­ Encoding Specificity Principle (see note slides pp. 26) ­ Overlap determines retrieval success ­ Serial Position Effect ­ Immediate recall: first and more recent items ­ Delayed recall: first items 02/03/16 (lecture) 9­9:50 am Serial position effect ­ reciting information immediately after being told it, you will remember the  beginning and the ending of the list. ­ Immediate recall ­ Primacy effect (words at the beginning) ­ rehearsal ­ Referency effect (words at the end) ­ still in working memory ­ Delayed recall ­ Primacy effect only (words at the beginning) ­ rehearsal ­ Try to encode and not forget… ­ Encoding failure ­ What we don’t notice, we won’t  encode and remember later ­ Only so much our brains can take in! ­ Storage decay ­ Causes explicit memories to be  inaccessible ­ Use it or lose it! ­ Ebbings memory effect ­ You will forget most  of the information you learn after 2 days but what you do  remember you will remember for a long time ­ Retrieval failure ­ Memory is there, but hard to find ­ “tip of the tongue” phenomenon ­ When we can’t quite  access memories ­ Retrieval can help  (priming/hint) ­ Interference ­ New memories and old memories  getting confused! ­ Proactive: Occurs  when older memory makes it more difficult to remember  new information ­ Retroactive: Occurs  when new learning disrupts memory for older information ­ Motivated forgetting ­ Who ate the cookies? ­ We don’t want to remember  everything (eating all of the cookies) ­ Misinformation effect ­ Misleading information has  corrupted one’s memory of an event ­ “We don’t just retrieve memories,  we reweave them” ­ reconsolidation ­ We can not remember what we don’t encode ­ Bottom line ­ Generally, forgetting is a useful cognitive function: ­ Like only buying things you  want/need (encoding failure) ­ Cleaning out clutter (storage decay) ­ Can be annoying if you can’t find  something you know is there somewhere! (retrieval failure) ­ When do we forget? ­ Forgetting can occur at any memory stage ­ As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose  much of it ­ Sensory memory, Working/short­ term memory, long term storage, retrieval/long­term memory ­ Listen to the list of words ­ Bed, awake, night, dream, comfort, sleep (?) ­ snore ­ Inducting false memories via semantic associations ­ Verbs influence recall ­ Take home point ­ Memory is a reconstructive  process in which gaps  are “filled in” based in information that may or may not be true ­ Memory is unreliable and impressionable ­ Corroborating evidence should be used ­ Source amnesia/Source misattribution ­ Forgetting where an idea came from ­ Piaget ­ Inadvertent plagiarism ­ Bosnian national anthem and theme  song from “Animal House” 02/04/16 (lab) 8­8:45 am ­ usually 9­9:50 am ­ Today we worked on our Dunlosky papers and did group work asking any  questions we may have about the paper or assignment process ­ The Dunlosky et al. paper is due February 26th 2016 submitted on blackboard as  a .doc, .docx, or .pdf


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