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ARCH 2013 - 007, Week #3

by: Ashley

ARCH 2013 - 007, Week #3 ARCH 2243 - 001


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About this Document

The next set of monuments we covered this past week.
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
Architecture, History of Architecture, history, Ottoman, 16th century, italian
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
2-1-2016 Indigenous Traditions in the Western Hemisphere: Space and Social Patters in the New World I. City Plan of Cholula (Law of the Indies) – Cholula, Mexico – 16 Century  Three different architectural styles in Spain in 1500: High Renaissance  Group thinking starts  Large territorial states oSpanish expanding their country way way out of Spain in order to find treasure  Tenochtitlan – a grid plan that has separated the city based on the different activities on the island  Chinampas – floating gardens  Theory oOrthogonal shape oStreet grid  regular size blocks oMain square at the center, arcaded with church and or civic buildings oResidences limited to the Spanish  The Aztecs and Indigenous could visit but could not live there oLike medieval new towns in Europe  Colonial Hybridities oLocated at intersection of main roads oLarge paved precinct oWalled enclosure oMost monumental architecture oOrder – clean streets and paved piazzas 2-1-2016 II. S. Gabriel (Franciscan Monastery w/ Atrio) – Cholula, Mexico – 16 Century – Gothic  Context oSpain wanted all indigenous people to convert to Christianity oConstructed a monastery – not just for monks to pray and work but have visitors come and visit and learn about the faith  Parts of a Colonial Monastery oWall around it with a big gate oAtrio – huge yard all the way around the interior of the wall – big open space oPosas – outdoor chapels for processional service oMonumental cross – exterior, let indigenous people create the sculpture by giving them European pictures oCapilla – open Indian chapel, hypostyle hall, outside because the mass has to have something over the alter  Colonial Hybridities oMonastic Atiro precedent – great mosque at Cordoba oHuge open plazas of aztec temple oThe open chapel (capilla) – at S. Gabriel it is a unique hypostyle hall – a possible model for it oMosque architecture – hypostyle oElements of European style  Fully gothic nave  San Bernardino, Valladolid, Mexico – no aisles just nave  Plateresque – north portal – special molding with decorative detail, silversmith style  Indigenous sculpting techniques – sharply contrasting planes oElements of Indigenous Architectural Conceptions  It just goes around the church and the roof is actually a slight /\  Crenellations 2-1-2016  Church of San Gabriel - Wall is liberated from the structure like a free standing surface  Aztec pyramids – architecture of exterior surfaces in front of which processions took place  Symbolism oFortress – sacred from profane space oSoldiers of Christ oHeavenly Jerusalem – had a gate to enter through 2-3-2016 16 Century Italy: Papal Rome, Renaissance Architecture and the Cult of Antiquity I. Tempietto – Rome, Italy – 16 Century – Donato Bramante – Renaissance  Context oThe very bottom basement there is a hole in the ground to venerate Julius II oThis monastery was given to the Spanish  Precedenst oRome  Temple of Hercules Victor AKA Tholos oHe didn’t invent a new building type just looked at the Tholos in order to master the hypostyle in the round sort of building oDoric order on this one compared to the Tholos which is Corinthian order oThere is a cella and peristyle (undulating one) in a circular form  The undulating peristyle is something that has never been done oInterior  The dome  not straight ribs that are grey and white but its shades of gray to show light and shadow  Some sort of carving with a statue oClassical form – tempietto’s grey granite spolia columns with a new base and capital oChristian Content – entablature has carvings of religious things 2-3-2016  Theory oBeauty of form enhance by ornament  Proportions are based off of squares  Classical columns diameter is a basis for proportions  Humanism oInteractive psychologically compelling space oSends out waves of reiterating roundness all around itself oDesigned for perspective th II. New St. Peter’s – Rome, Italy – 16 Century – Bramante – Renaissance  Precedents oMausoleum of Emperor Hadrian in Rome oMausoleum of Emperor Hadrian in Rome oRound imperial central plan mausoleum – round, imperial pope, central plane peter buried in it oShape of the dome is similar to the pantheon  The pantheon doesn’t have a drum BUT there are steps on the dome in both oSt. Peters Dome by Michelangelo – the dome is more vertical and egg shaped but there are cracks in the columns … :/ F.Y.I.: Comparative Sizes of Domes in Italy St. Peter’s: 42.56 m. in diameter 136.57 m. high from floor to lantern. Florence cathedral:40 m. in diameter 107 m. high Pantheon: 42 m. in diameter 42 m. high.  Theory oIt was a circle which follows in Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing studies  High Renaissance Style othe niches that move in and out oBath of Diocletian / Hadrain’s Villa / Temple of Minerva Medica  all had that in and out movement oVery centrally planned 2-3-2016 oReally large piers so that they did not crack with the weight of the arches and dome oNew about the façade and exterior that Bramante’s design required  Not facadism (slapping facades on a building)  Not a two dimensional exercise rather a three dimensional expression of what’s on the inside  Wavy walls allow a very three dimensional façade around the whole building  Humanism oDisplay space, reveal it slowly with subjective, emotional power  15 vs 16 Century Aesthetics o15 Century  Planar wall  Architects “draw”  Intellectually measured  Emphasis on the mind  Space is absence of mass  Artificial perspective  Light is even th Meditative atmosphere o16 Century  Wall and mass  Architects “modeled  Visual experience  Emphasis on the eye  Space is palable in a dynamic relationship with mass  Light is slightly varied  Expressive emotional moods III. Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael) – Rome, Italy – 16 cent. – Bramante – Renaissance  Façade oTwo and a half stories (supposedly silly to have three) oCaprini Brothers – shops for the first floor 2-3-2016 oSecond floor – living spaces oFirst level – rusticated, round arches oSecond level – trabiated arches, big cornice, mini balconies which keeps your eye going straight across – adding integrity oAbstract cornice separating good work of the hand, likeness of mind / commerce, living oThe openings and columns-ish all were stacked evenly so even though there were two different styles of façade but they mesh together well oHalf columns add a sense of mass and light and shadow  Social Implications oThe patron – has some good living oInterdependence is also clear  Privacy oMercantile first floor is clear by the openings oSame concern with privacy as Florence by stacking the windows to hide whats really going on in each floor even though the style of each façades th floor proves store vs living space  16 Century Aesthetics oInfluence of Bramante’s binary façade oReduce attic story above 2-5-2016 The Ottoman Empire Divergent Claims to the Classical Canon in Sinan’s Istanbul I. Mosque and Kulliye of Suleyman I – Istanbul, Turkey – 16 Cent. – Sinan – Ottoman  Ottoman Empire oLarge territorial state – imperial ambitions oGroup think starts – religion oHe had his külliye built: “to elevate matters of religion and religious sciences in order to strengthen the mechanisms of worldly sovereignty and to reach happiness in the afterworld.” oSinan as early modern architect  Dictated an autobiography to a post  Ottoman architects gained intellectual responsibility as the least manual of the arts as they did in Italy  Context oKulliye – centered on the mosque – community center – area where schools would be too oSultan Suleyman – looked at Haggian Sophia for antiquity oPrecedent – early modern theaters of conversion in Mexico, City of Cholula (laws of Indies)  Group Thinking oServices provided in the Suleyman’s kulliye  Esplanade on SW side with a wall separating the mosque from the school area  Courtyard – columns are units  Behind the mosque – mausoleum – complex for travelers and poor  Urban Design Theory – plans of kulliye exemplify modern control of complex spaces oAs they grow things are more organized and symmetrical 2-5-2016 oBringing order to it – making it more interesting oTravel around the edge  16 Century Psychological Engagement oHe had his own house built in it oShops are inserted into the terrace of the mosque - the madrasas on NE slope  Actually on a hill (looks somewhat flat though :P) oIf you are on a higher part of the area all the buildings are connected and step down together to not block the view (even though the leveling is not as dynamic as it could be)  Precedents oMosque of Bayezid I – Bursa oHagia Sophia – Istanbul  He says that this building is unequaled in the world  He says that the architects should bind the domes and half domes on top of them and tie the arches in an agreeable manner oOttoman mosque type oDomed prayer hall oPencil thin cylindrical minarets the Süleymaniye mosque 2-5-2016  Ottoman Architectural Style oExterior Massing  Hagia Sophia  heavily buttressed, stark, heavy facades  contrasting cubic base and dome  Suleymaniye  Orchestration of domes various sizes  Stepped pyramidal silhouette  Domes reflect the inner space  There is a line across the whole building that separates the mass of the bottom of the building and the stepping up domed area of the building  Side elevations echo domes above oInterior Articulation  Hagia Sophia  Column screens between nave and aisles  Theatre of the 3 apses  Structural system obscured  Otherworldly dome (analog of heavan)  All glittering gold mosaic  Suleymaniye  Tall arches give view of full height of the interior space  Centrally planned building with partially seen aisles and niches  Flat sanctuary wall  Structural system expressed  Light evenly distributed  White plastered walls contrast with gold mosaic dome


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