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# Chemistry 116 Chapter 1 notes (Week 2) CHEM 116

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamisha Evans on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 116 at Western Kentucky University taught by Bangbo Yan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO COLLEGE CHEMISTRY in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.

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Date Created: 02/09/16

Chemistry 116: Chapter 1 *Week 2 Notes* Measurement & Significant Figures • Unit: Comparison of a physical quantity with a fixed standard of measurement • Accuracy and Precision Precision: Closeness of value to average Accuracy: Closeness to its true value EXAMPLE: If the actual value during a chemistry experiment is 43kg and your repeated measurements for four trials are Trial 1: 32kg, Trial 2: 34kg, Trial 3: 33kg, Trial 4: 34kg then your average is 33.25 and this means your results are precise but NOT accurate. • Significant Figures: meaningful digits plus a final digit with some uncertainty(AKA: SigFigs) All nonzero digits are significant EXAMPLE: 25,425 or 23.932 *Both have 5 SigFigs* The last digit is always uncertain Zeros between nonzero digits are significant EXAMPLE: 0.0903 *3 SigFigs* Leading zeros are NOT significant EXAMPLE: 0.00034 *2 SigFigs* Trailing zeros are significant if they are to the right of the decimal point EXAMPLE: 0.200 *3 SigFigs* Trailing zeros in a number without a specific decimalpoint may or may not be significant • Scientific Notation: Representation of a numbers 1-10 multiplied by 10 (A x 10^n) Moving decimal to right= Positive n Moving decimal to left= Negative n • Rounding: Dropping nonsignificant numbers EXAMPLE: 1.51g / 3.84L= .3932291667 There are only 3 SigFigs in each measurement so there can only be 3 SigFigs in your answer or your answer would be more accurate than your measurements! If the number after 3 were greater than five then you would round the 3 to a 4. (..394) When multiplying or dividing your answer should have the same amount of SigFigs as your measurement with the least number of SigFigs EXAMPLE:1.51g/ 3.845L=.3927178153 .393 When subtracting or adding, your answer should have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places. EXAMPLE: 8.7781 - 0.42589= 8.35221 (Since we have a measurements with 4 decimal places and one with 5 decimal places our answer should only have 4 decimal places). • Exact number: Counted number or defined number EXAMPLE: There are exactly 2.54cm in an inch so 2.54cm is the exact number and SHOULDN’T be used to determine the amount of SigFigs in your answer. 2.54 1000 in. X 1 = 2540 cm ( So 1000 should be used to determine the amount of SigFigs in your answer which is why our answer has 4 SigFigs and not 3 or 1). SI Units • SI units are made up of a particular choice of metric units • Base units 7 metric units from which all other units can derive from Length Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Time second s Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd Mega - 106 M 3 Kilo- 10 k Deci- 10-1 d -2 Centi- 10 c Milli- 10-3 m Micro- 10-6 µ -9 Nano- 10 n Pico- 10-12 p Area length x length m 2 3 Volume length x length x length m Density mass/unit volume kg/m 3 Speed distance/unit time m/s Acceleration change in speed/ unit time m/s2 EXAMPLES: • 1 dm = 10-1 -6 • 1µs=10 • 1nm= 10Å( angstrom= used to measure wavelengths of light) • Density Common units 3 Solid g/cm Liquid g/mL Gas g/L • Temperature Heat flows from an area with a higher temperature to an area with a lower temperature Boiling point of H 0… 2 Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit 373.15K 100˚C 212˚F Freezing Point of 20… Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit 273.15K 0˚C 32˚F *100 unit* *180 unit* Converting ˚F ˚C Equation (TK-32˚F) x (100/180) Converting ˚C ˚F Equation (T˚C x (9/5) + 32 Converting K ˚C Equation T -273 K Converting ˚C K Equation ˚C+273 Converting ˚F K Equation (T°F 459.67) x 5/9 Converting K ˚F Equation (TK) x (9/5) - 459.67 Chemistry 116: Chapter 1 *Week 2 Notes* Measurement & Significant Figures • Unit: Comparison of a physical quantity with a fixed standard of measurement • Accuracy and Precision Precision: Closeness of value to average Accuracy: Closeness to its true value EXAMPLE: If the actual value during a chemistry experiment is 43kg and your repeated measurements for four trials are Trial 1: 32kg, Trial 2: 34kg, Trial 3: 33kg, Trial 4: 34kg then your average is 33.25 and this means your results are precise but NOT accurate. • Significant Figures: meaningful digits plus a final digit with some uncertainty(AKA: SigFigs) All nonzero digits are significant EXAMPLE: 25,425 or 23.932 *Both have 5 SigFigs* The last digit is always uncertain Zeros between nonzero digits are significant EXAMPLE: 0.0903 *3 SigFigs* Leading zeros are NOT significant EXAMPLE: 0.00034 *2 SigFigs* Trailing zeros are significant if they are to the right of the decimal point EXAMPLE: 0.200 *3 SigFigs* Trailing zeros in a number without a specific decimalpoint may or may not be significant • Scientific Notation: Representation of a numbers 1-10 multiplied by 10 (A x 10^n) Moving decimal to right= Positive n Moving decimal to left= Negative n • Rounding: Dropping nonsignificant numbers EXAMPLE: 1.51g / 3.84L= .3932291667 There are only 3 SigFigs in each measurement so there can only be 3 SigFigs in your answer or your answer would be more accurate than your measurements! If the number after 3 were greater than five then you would round the 3 to a 4. (..394) When multiplying or dividing your answer should have the same amount of SigFigs as your measurement with the least number of SigFigs EXAMPLE:1.51g/ 3.845L=.3927178153 .393 When subtracting or adding, your answer should have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places. EXAMPLE: 8.7781 - 0.42589= 8.35221 (Since we have a measurements with 4 decimal places and one with 5 decimal places our answer should only have 4 decimal places). • Exact number: Counted number or defined number EXAMPLE: There are exactly 2.54cm in an inch so 2.54cm is the exact number and SHOULDN’T be used to determine the amount of SigFigs in your answer. 2.54 1000 in. X 1 = 2540 cm ( So 1000 should be used to determine the amount of SigFigs in your answer which is why our answer has 4 SigFigs and not 3 or 1). SI Units • SI units are made up of a particular choice of metric units • Base units 7 metric units from which all other units can derive from Length Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Time second s Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd Mega - 106 M 3 Kilo- 10 k Deci- 10-1 d -2 Centi- 10 c Milli- 10-3 m Micro- 10-6 µ -9 Nano- 10 n Pico- 10-12 p Area length x length m 2 3 Volume length x length x length m Density mass/unit volume kg/m 3 Speed distance/unit time m/s Acceleration change in speed/ unit time m/s2 EXAMPLES: • 1 dm = 10-1 -6 • 1µs=10 • 1nm= 10Å( angstrom= used to measure wavelengths of light) • Density Common units 3 Solid g/cm Liquid g/mL Gas g/L • Temperature Heat flows from an area with a higher temperature to an area with a lower temperature Boiling point of H 0… 2 Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit 373.15K 100˚C 212˚F Freezing Point of 20… Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit 273.15K 0˚C 32˚F *100 unit* *180 unit* Converting ˚F ˚C Equation (TK-32˚F) x (100/180) Converting ˚C ˚F Equation (T˚C x (9/5) + 32 Converting K ˚C Equation T -273 K Converting ˚C K Equation ˚C+273 Converting ˚F K Equation (T°F 459.67) x 5/9 Converting K ˚F Equation (TK) x (9/5) - 459.67

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