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PSM Ch. 6

by: Caleb Rogers

PSM Ch. 6 WRIT 20313

Caleb Rogers
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 6 for the quiz on Thursday.
Power and Protest
Brad Lucas
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caleb Rogers on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to WRIT 20313 at Texas Christian University taught by Brad Lucas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 02/09/16
Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 6 Identification Polarization Framing Rhetoric Tactics Identification - Having similarity or common references; sharing important aspects of nature & substance - Reduces ambiguity & therefore encouraging cooperation - Close relationship between identification & persuasion o Persuade someone only insofar as you can talker their language by speech, gesture, tone, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying you ways with hers - Identification is an instrument of transformation - When a goal/group makes sense we identify with it - Need for personal coherence underlines division from those who are different; Social coordination underscores the persons we identify with that index or reality - Invitation to rhetoric begins when identification & division are blending so well you don’t know where one ends or begins Levels of Identification - Common ground: gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation - Protesters may feel common ground because of their work, education, religion, or social status - SM persuaders use notion of a people to unify & provide means of identification - Movements portray themselves as grassroots, citizens, or majority movements. - People in movements share interests, needs, values, & wisdom (common ground) Identification Tactics - Use plural pronouns to imply identification, common purpose, & struggle (implied we: subtly establish commonality) - Feeling of being together in the great moral struggle - When people become involved w/ groups or participate in group actions they become more tolerant, or sympathetic, of the views of other persuaders or groups. - Separate groups and their individuals can unite around a single cause. - SM members may share significant appearance. - Persuaders & movements may identify by adapting language to audiences. (Stokely Carmichael’s) - Protestors may identify w/ audiences through content adaption. - Persuaders reflect audience values, belief, & attitudes by identifying w/ moral symbols & revered documents rather than attacking or disparaging them. (ex. We the People in the women’s and Labor movements) - SMs also identify with the values, beliefs, & attitudes of audiences by identify with heroes & founders. (ex. Women’s suffrage = Elizabeth Cady Stanton) o Shows movement is heir of societal norms, values, etc. - A persuader may create identification by referring to individuals unrelated to the movement but who the audience honors & respects. - Movements link themselves with other SMs active at the tie that already have degree of respect Identity Politics - Outcome of 1950-1960 SMs - Based on groups who claim to represent the interest of members - Process of reclaiming & redefining attributes of group membership - Rejection of the narratives from dominant culture - Transforming groups’ sense of “self” - Social interaction & communication is used to establish, maintain, and change one’s identity - Assumptions of Identity Politics: o 1. Members of the group share common histories & analyses of their historic & continual shared oppression o 2. Shared oppression is marker of identity that supersedes all other forms of identity. o 3. Group members are fierce & constant allies. - Four tiers/layers of personal identity o Personal Layer: feelings thoughts, & ideas about ourselves o Enactment Layer: the roles we play (ex. Son, father, son, etc.) o Communal Layer: links us to larger groups or cultures Polarization - Unite with one group, cause, or movement is to separate from some other group, cause, or SM. - Clear distinction between evil other & virtuous self (we-they dichotomy) - No middle ground - 2 primary strategies: (contrast “us” & “them”) o Affirmation: judicious selection of images that will promote a strong sense of group identity  Highest values in a moral struggle o Subversion: careful selection of those images that will undermine ethos of competing groups, ideologies, or institutions  Flag issues and Flag Individuals. Attacking them garners media attention. - Divides in order to unite those who support a cause & force commitment from those attempting to remain aloof - “If you are not with us, you are against us.” - We: righteous, moral, self-sacrificing individuals, true believers - They: institutions, silent majority, media, countermovements, competing SMs, and those who movement is fighting for but don’t participate Framing - “Frame is central organizing idea for making sense of relevant events & suggesting what is at issue” - Facts are neutral until framed & given some form or context & meaning. - Framing affects public understanding of an issue or event - Framing is a process where communicators act to construct a particular POV encouraging a situation to be viewed in a particular manner - Framing of an issue must be well within the larger established belief-value - Includes what you focus/ don’t focus on Tactics (Language/Rhetorical) - Songs - Slogans - Obscenity - Nonverbal - Ridicule - Labeling - Symbolic


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