Test 1 Review for Intro to Psych
Test 1 Review for Intro to Psych Psych 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Martin on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at New York University taught by Edgar Coons in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at New York University.
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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
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Date Created: 02/09/16
▪ Synapse- space between two neurons- neurotransmitter goes from presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron ▪ a neurotransmitter goes through reuptake- neuron shoots them out and sucks them back up- if they aren’t sucked back up they aren’t used again ▪ Everything that will be on the test- 10.1 go through some multiple choice questions from exam 1 ▪ 1. what factors affect gene expression- chpt2- genotype the phenotype weather the genes are dominant or recessive- incomplete dominance- brown eyes is a dominant gene and blue is recessive- express brown eyes but be carriers of blue eyes ⁃ genotype is what is in your DNA and phenotype is what is expressed and seen ▪ 2. what are the major principles of natural selection- darwin! survival of the ﬁttest- all life comes from a common ancestor- dominant widespread traits are favored by environment- natural selection favors ﬂexibility- if you aren’t ﬂexible you die- niches affect variability if you change an environment then you change what is favorable for the environment- variability is favored because the environment changes ▪ personal survival and species survival- ⁃ self interest- if a robin is in a tree and a hawk comes by it keeps quiet to help itself- by not speaking out it increases its chance of the hawk coming back is bigger so it notiﬁes the rest of the robins to save the species ▪ three basic needs- protection, replication, and renewal if there is damage to the cell ▪ brain ▪ forebrain midbrain and hindbrain ▪ four divisions of cerebral cortex- grey and white matter- frontal, parietal, occipital,and 2 temporal ⁃ frontal- higher order cognition- planning ahead social behavior ⁃ parietal- humunculus- creepy man thing- senses- skin touch whatever ⁃ occipital- vision- goes to back and is processed ⁃ temporal- hearing and language ▪ hindbrain- medulla-heart and breathing pons and cerebellum- controls voluntary movement ▪ apraxia- a movement disorder ▪ agnosia- can’t recognize stimulus- can describe a phone- agnosia of language is don’t know what someone is saying ▪ aphasia- number linguistic disorder- stokes- can’t have an actual conversation ⁃ nonﬂuent- can’t talk- ﬂuent can talk but can’t comprehend ▪ left hemisphere- language- right is visual and spacial things ▪ split brain- cut at corpus callosum and two brain sides can’t communicate ⁃ corpus callosum- transfers info ⁃ lateralization- functional differences between the two sides of the brain ▪ all or none law- once you reach action threshold of neuron if your intensity is greater or less if you hit -55 is threshold it’ll spike no matter what -70 is resting potential +40 something is action potential ⁃ SSRI- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- depression- they’re an agonist for seratonin- block presynaptic neuron for sucking up serotonin so there is more ﬂowing in the synapse ⁃ agonist for dopamine is cocaine- blocks it from taking in dopamine and causes extreme pleasure ▪ neuroepinephrine- action sesratonin- happiness dopamine- pleasure ▪ naloxone- blocks or reduces the pain aleviating of endorphins or placebos ⁃ they fake ﬁx pain so it blocks that ⁃ they won’t ﬁx pain ⁃ use for heroin overdose- blacklist they do it to Reddington when he feels pain ▪ which brain part is linked to wanting- nucleus accumpens mediated by dopamine ▪ brain part linked to liking- frontal cortex- mediated by endorphins ▪ dopamine hypothesis- pleasure is involved with the activation of nucleus assumepens and is linked to dopamine ⁃ why people take cocaine ⁃ alcohol is a downer and it doesn’t work on dopamine system so there is a general reward system- dopamine isn’t the only thing that makes you happy ▪ necessary components of homeostasis- set point, sensor, comparator, restitution response mechanism ▪ parasympathetic- up on heat sweat- sympathetic gets colder and shivers ▪ vasoconstriction- sympathetic ▪ sympathetic is ﬁght or ﬂight- more oxygen to muscles stuff shuts down to conserve energy ▪ parasympathetic calms body down after that ▪ sympathetic- ﬁght ﬂight- short term activation- bodily functions shut down- when this happens for a longer time period it’ll be destructive- wear and tear chronic anxiety ▪ glucose to glycogen liver receptors say don’t eat ▪ glycogen to glucose liver receptors say eat- release glycogen from stores if your blood pressure is too low- crave carbs ▪ other controls- leptin and neuropeptide y- leptin secreted by fat cells and excess nutrients- when fat cells are full they secrete leptin and you feel full- send signal to hypothalamus and inhibit neuropeptide why which tells us we are full- metabolic receptors interact with liver ▪ outside environmental- inﬂuenced by people around us ▪ hypothalamus is with neuropeptide y ▪ dual control theory- lateral area- lowers the body weight set point- if it’s damaged you get super thin- force-fed rats ⁃v entromedial area- raises body weight- get super fat if it’s damaged ▪ thrifty gene hypothesis- way back when genes used to favor fat people because food wasn’t readily available and it was cold ▪ Sleep- EEG beta activity- speeded heart rate and respiration and EEG delta- slow waves slow rolling eye movements and slow arousal and heart rate ▪ REM rapid eye movement is similar to being awake- you’re active and you’re body surpasses need to act out dream- basically paralized if not sleep walk ▪ rem vivid dreams other than that they’ll be fragmented ▪ why we need to sleep and dream- consolidates memory and renews cells- releases growth hormone- keeps you safe from preditores ▪ rem weird dreams ▪ mating ⁃ females show social aggression and males show physical ⁃ territory ⁃ sexual dimorphism- polygamy ▪ jealousy- men care about sexual loyalty and females care about emotional loyalty ▪ anorexia- 2 types- restrictive- restrict calorie intake and binge purge laxative exercise and vomitting ⁃ cultural problems ⁃ thought women would eat food and they thought they’d get pregnant so they were scared ⁃ control and personal autonomy- want control over their body ⁃ genetics ⁃ twins more common in identical twins ⁃ anorexia often comes with OCD and anxiety ▪ temporal simmation- stimulus if presented in succession if they’re below threshold- achieve action potential with a lot of frequencies ▪ spatial summation- two or more sub threshold stimuli presented at the same time in two separate places- many neurons ﬁre to achieve effect ▪ agonists-chemicals enhance neurotransmitters and antagonists- impede neurotransmitter activity ▪ voodoo death- think they’re cursed and their sympathetic nervous system goes nuts and they die ▪ clinically- damage of brain and see what is going on after- pole head guy ▪ catscan and EEG other ways ▪ parts of brain can be damaged but the rest can still work ▪ localization in brain- when using brain whatever part is used is more accurate ▪ neglect syndrome- don’t know left side of body is there ▪ left hemisphere is responsible for language but it can only see what is on your right visual ﬁeld ▪ left controls right eye and visa versa ▪ drawing is controlled by the right hemisphere and they can only see from the left eye ▪ ESSAYS- sunday night 8pm check email ▪ essay question evolution- pic ⁃ if one individual is exposed to something and it dies then they’ll all die so they need variation ⁃ some will reproduce faster because it’s better adapted ⁃ traits should be passed from parents to offspring ⁃ when things happen over generations it’ll evolve ⁃ variation can come from chromosomal variation during sexual reproduction ⁃ mutations durring dna replication ⁃ evidence- organisms can transform through selective breeding- fossils ⁃ hypothalamus primal needs sex food- frontal cortex development in humans make us better than ancestors and more logical ⁃ organisms genomes and molecular structures- we are related to chimps ▪ needs for survival ⁃ protection replication renewal\ look at pics learn to draw ﬂowchart
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