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Lab 1

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About this Document

Introduction and Frog Calls
Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Kenneth F. Kellner
Class Notes
Ecology, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources




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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 1: INTRODUCTION AND FROG CALLS Emily McCallen Kate Pochini Herps PFEN G004 PFEN G004 Instructors Dr. Ken Kellner PFEN 126 Birds Dana Nelson Patrick Ruhl ClassSchedule Section 004 Herps Open Lab TH 1:30 – 3:20 Labs: Jan. 12 – Feb 19 th Specimens and Questions Practical: Feb. 23 and 25 th Herps: Friday Section 006 Birds 9:30 –11:30 Kate T 1:30 – 3:20 1:30 – 3:30 Emily Labs: March 1 – April 15 th Birds: TBD Practical: April 19 and 21 st Snakes of the Central and Northeastern RequiredT exts United States The Sibley Guide to Birds Salamanders of Indiana Turtles of Indiana MacGowan. Purdue David Sibley. 2014. The Extension. 126 pp. Sibley Guide to Birds, MacGowan and Williams. MacGowan, Kingsbury Second Edition. Knopf. Purdue Extension. 94 pp. and Williams. Purdue 624 pp. ISBN-10: Extension. 64 pp. 030795790X; ISB-13: 978- 0307957900. OrderingT exts Herp Texts Education store for online ordering: Physical store for in person purchasing: MMDC Bird Texts Online, Local bookstores Grading Herps quizzes (5 x 20 points each) = 100 points A+ ≥ 582.0 points Point rounding: Herps practical exam = 200 points A = 558.0-581.9 points A- = 540-557.9 points According to standard Birds quizzes (5 x 20 points each) = 100 points B+ = 522.0-539.9 points practice Birds practical exam = 200 points B = 498.0-521.9 points B- = 480.0-497.9 points TOTAL = 600 points E.g., 539.94 = 539.9 = B+ C+ = 462.0-479.9 points 539.95 = 540.0 = A- C = 438.0-461.9 points EC Points = 2 per assignment C- = 420.0-437.9 points 2 per quiz D+ = 402.0-419.9 points 10 per practical D = 378.0-401.9 points 64 total D- = 360.0-377.9 points 10 additional F = < 360 points ClassTime Before Class • Print off lab notes, worksheets, and powerpoint Quizzes • Will start at 1:30 • Pencils and quizzes only • 10 stations, 60 seconds at each station • 2 minutes after stations are completed to go to unfinished stations • Won’t be given extra time if you’re late PowerPoints Lab Specimens/ Worksheet Checkout MissedAssignmentPolicy May makeup labs and quizzes if: 1.) Legitimate excuse and documentation and 2.) E-mail both TA and Dr. Kellner by 6:00 p.m. Thursday AcademicDishonesty Academic dishonesty, including cheating, will earn a zero for the offense.nt on the first offense and a zero for the course on the second Includes: copying, wandering eye, use of non-medical device, possession exams.rse materials while taking quiz, etc. Bring only pencil to quizzes and Protect yourself: know what constitutes academic dishonesty: .html// Disability In this course, each voice in the classroom has something of value to contribute. Please take care to respect the different experiences, beliefs and values expressed by students and staff involved in this course. We support Purdue's commitment to diversity, and welcome individuals of all ages, backgrounds, citizenships, disability, sex, education, ethnicities, family statuses, genders, views, races, religions, sexual orientations, socioeconomic statuses, and workitical experiences. To make accommodations: •Contact me within first two weeks so we can make arrangements •Documentation from Disability Resource Center (DRC) required Emergencies In the event of a major campus emergency, course requirements, deadlines and grading percentages are subject to changes that may be necessitated by a revised semester calendar or other circumstances beyond the instructor’s control. Here are ways to get information about changes in this course. • •Blackboard •Instructor emails EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS – A MESSAGE FROM PURDUE To report an emergency, call 911. To obtain updates regarding an ongoing emergency, sign up for Purdue Alert text messages, view There are nearly 300 Emergency Telephones outdoors across campus and in parking garages that connect directly to the PUPD. If you feel threatened or need help, push the button and you will be connected immediately. If we hear a fire alarm during class we will immediately suspend class, evacuate the building,o and proceed outdoors. Do not use the elevator. Hall If we are notified during class of a Shelter in Place requirement for a tornado warning, we will suspend class and shelter in the first floor restrooms. 1 floor restrooms If we are notified during class of a Shelter in Place requirement for a hazardous materials release, or a civil disturbance, including a shooting or other use of weapons, we will suspend class and shelter in the classroom, shutting the door and turning off the lights. Please review the Emergency Preparedness website for additional information. Justacouplemorethings………… E-mails • Always e-mail both TA and instructor • Put FNR 252 in subject line of all e-mails Quizes • 30% id to species • 30% id to family or order • 40% natural history Naming • Both common and Latin names must be spelled correctly and capitalized properly • Latin names must be italicized (typing) or underlines (writing) • Herps : must know common and Latin names (e.g., spotted turtle, Clemmys guttata) + ~ 15 Anuran calls • Birds: must know common names (e.g., Great Blue Heron) and calls (~ 20/week) INTROTOHERPS(PlusFrogCalls) T erminology Herpetology: Root from the Greek word “herpton” which means something that crawls. The branch of biology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Herpetofauna: The amphibians and reptiles living in a particular geographic area. Herps: Informal way of saying amphibians and reptiles. MoreT erminology Ectothermic: lack internal temperature regulation, rely on environmental heat sources A• Typically lay eggs which hatch into larvae • Larvae breath air via gills (aquatic) • Metamorphosis into adults that breath air via lungs/skin (terrestrial) • Moist skin without scales • No claws on their feet • Lay unshelled eggs R• Hatch from shelled eggs (amnion) • Young miniature adults • Scaly skin • Clawed feet V ertebrateSpeciesNumbers Amphibians ~ 7,500 Reptiles ~ 9,500 Mammals ~ 5,500 Birds ~ 10,000 Fish ~ 30,000 ClassificationofExtantAmphibians 3 Major Lineages: frogs, salamanders, and caecilians Order Gymnophiona (caecilians) •10 families; 200 species •Pantropical •Least known of all living amphibians (fossorial lifestyle) •Blunt, bullet shaped heads attached to long cylindrical, limbless bodies (worm-like) Salamanders Order Caudata ◦ 10 families; 675 species. ◦ Three clusters Sirens: 2 tiny, but fully developed forelimbs and no hind limbs Primitive salamanders: External fertilization Advanced salamanders: Internal fertilization ◦ Most are secretive, avoid direct sunlight, active at dawn and dusk FrogsandT oads Order Anura • Three clusters6,509 species Archaeobatrachia (ancient) Mesobatrachia (intermediate) Neobatrachia (advanced) • Most abundant and widely distributed amphibians ClassificationofExtantReptiles Two ancient lineages representing four orders: Order Testudines (turtles) • 14 families; 260 species • Jaws lack teeth (replaced by horny jaw sheaths) • All have bodies encased in bony shells Order Crocodylia (crocodilians) • 3 families; 23 species Order Sphenodontida (tuataras) • 1 family; 2 species • Lizard-like reptiles of New Zealand Squamates Order Squamata (lizards and snakes)  57 families; 9,400 species  Highly diverse order, representing three suborders Suborder Lacertilia (lizards) • 27 families; 6,000 species • Most abundant and diverse reptilian group • Three to four species within Indiana Suborder Amphisbaenia (worm lizards) • 6 families; 180 species • Fossorial lifestyle Suborder Serpentes (snakes) • 18 families; 3,500 species FrogCalls Anurans most vocal group of herps Several types of vocalizations Generally only males call • Advertisement : Species specific call to attract mate • Release : When amplexus occurs with two males • Aggressive : Other males invading territory • Alarm: Given just before leaping to safety • Distress: Loud wailing cries to induce predator to drop easternspadefoot (Scaphiopusholbrookiholbrooki)  Explosive, nasal sound  Sounds like the call of an immature crow  Repeated every 5-10 seconds Americantoad (Anaxyrusamericanus) Musical trill Somewhat resembles a policeman’s whistle Individuals may vary slightly in pitch Lasts from several seconds to 30 seconds or more Fowler’ stoad (Anaxyrusfowleri) Buzzy, nasal trill cryingds like a baby seconds from 1-5 northerncricketfrog (Acriscrepitans) Series of metallic notes Sounds like a cricket or like 2 steel marbles striking each other Often starts out slowly, then increases in speed, then slows down again easterngraytreefrog (Hylaversicolor) Short, loud, resonant trill Slower and more melodic than Cope’s gray tree frog Last about 0.5 second and is repeated every few seconds springpeeper (Pseudacriscrucifer) Series of sharp, high-pitched, piercing peeps Repeated about once per second A chorus may sound like sleigh bells jingling westernchorusfrog (Pseudacristriseriata) Ascending series of rapid clicks Sounds like a fingernail running over a toothed comb Repeated every 1-2 seconds greenfrog (Lithobatesclamitans) Vigorous, throaty “gunk” Resembles twang of loose banjo string Usually a single note Sometimes given in a series that drops slightly in volume and pitch Americanbullfrog (Lithobatescatesbeianus) bass notes low, deep, loud Sounds like a foghorn Calls usually isolated Sometimes occur in a chorus of cattle mooingds like herd northernleopardfrog (Lithobatespipiens) Deep, rattling, uneven snore Sounds like a finger or balloonubbing against a Lasts about 3 seconds or longer wood frog (Lithobatessylvaticus)  Series of several harsh notes in rapid succession Sounds like a duck quacking Often repeated several times mink frog (Lithobatesseptentrionalis) Found in MI Series of 4 raps or clops Sound like horse’s hooves on a cobblestone street by striking two sticks together


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