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Early Africa

by: Desiree Notetaker

Early Africa History 110a

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

Chapter outline of the first part. The second part is Egypt!
World Civilizations
Class Notes
Africa, Egypt, world civilizations, notes, chapter outline
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110a at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
EARLY AFRICA –WORLD CIVILIZATIONS  African Geography and Climates  The continent –rises from the surround waters, coastal lowlands, deserts (in the north, northwest, and  southwest), inland plateaus, to highlands and mountains in the vast interior. Africa’s interior isolation is caused  by climate. The continent is divided by 5 climatic and vegetative zones:  1) The Mediterranean and the extreme south lie outside of tropical zones and enjoy temperate weather and  good soil  2) The Sahel, the dry and treeless steppes that cross Africa from the Atlantic to the Indian Oceans  3) The deserts –Sahara, Namib, and Kalahari  4) The rain forest extends on either side of the equator in the west and center  5) The Savanna, south of the Sahara, north of the rainforest in the West, and in most East, Central and  South Africa  Neolithic Revolution  Between 11000 and 3000 BCE, rainfalls were much higher than they are today –grassy steppe lands, woodlands and abundant lakes and rivers covered the “wet Sahara.” There were 4 linguistic groups  1) Khoisan: Inhabited part of East Africa, including Tanzania and Kenya. Remained hunters and foragers.  Adopted a unique technology with stone tools for variety of applications such as sewing, digging,  cutting, and hafting in missile heads. Learned to make sculpt pots and bowls out of stone. Forced to  move into drier regions of southern Africa by Neolithic food producers.  2) Nilo­Saharan and Afro­Asiatic speakers: inhabited regions near the Nile River valley, far south  (Egypt). Prior to the wet phase, they were hunter­gatherers. The wet phase allowed them to move  westward and southward from the Nile Valley, eventually occupying most of the Sahara. Around 10,000 BCE, many crossed the Sinai Peninsula and became known as the Semites –those that spoke Akkadian,  Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew. Ninth millennium ­domesticated cattle. A thousand years later, used stone pottery and cultivated indigenous seed crops. Those that lived along rivers and lakes, abandoned hunting to be fishers and farmers.  th 3) Niger­Congo speakers: The 4  group. Inhabited southern Sahara woodlands of West Africa during the  wet phase. Around the 6  millennium, they converted to farming.  By the late Pre­Common Era, the Sahara reverted to desert. Many moved southward and northward.  Descendants of Afro­Asiatic, the Berbers, altered to farming the desert or to desert nomadism. Other Afro­ Asians and Nilo­Saharans continued farming and fishing.  The Niger­Congoans moved southward into the Savanna and used their boat building skills to navigate  numerous rivers and streams and cleared openings in the forest with stone axes. The Bantu Speakers, a  subgroup, steadily expanded south and east and in 1000BCE emerged from the forest into the drier savannas.  They acquired iron technology and learned to breed livestock and grow grains. They established a small series  of kingdoms and by 400BCE they reached the southern top of the continent in present day South Africa.  After 5500BCE, the Afro­Asians who migrated further down the Nile River, settled as farmers along the  floodplain. They were the ancestors of the ancient Egyptians. Began growing wheat and barley, and later river  fishing. By 5000BCE, villages appeared. A thousand years later, their descendants cleared the area and several  Neolithic stated competed for control over a region that stretched from Lower Egypt to Upper Egypt.  Mid of 4  Millennium, three kingdoms emerged as main political leadership in the Upper Nile Valley:  1) Nekhen  2) Naqada  3) This –The pharaoh, Horus­Aha (or Menes) controlled the tiny Nilotic States.  Egypt depended on the waters of the great river system; has always been the Valley of the Nile – a green strip  averaging about 30miles wide and 4000miles long originating far to the south and flows north until it empties  into the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria. The Nile is a benevolent river; annually it would overflow its low  banks and spread out over the valley, carrying fertile soil. A few weeks later the flood would subside.  Egyptian population = peasants; free tenant farmers  Maat: Goddess. Embodiment of truth and justice. Represented by a feather. Determined the faith after death.   


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