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CRM 105-800

by: Sydney Kaydo

CRM 105-800 CRM 105 Online

Sydney Kaydo
GPA 3.67

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Notes for Chapter 15 - the Juvenile Justice System
Introduction to Criminology
Dr. Randy LaGrange
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Kaydo on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 105 Online at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Randy LaGrange in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 15: Juvenile Justice Youth Crime in the United States  1.3 million arrests of juveniles occur each year o 59,000 of which are for violent crimes   Youth crimes range from UCR Index Crimes (murder, rape, robbery, assault) to  “youthful crimes” (curfew violations, loitering, running away)  Most juvenile cases are committed by young men, but young women make up an  increasing percentage of juveniles appearing in court  Explanations behind the rise in youth crime: o “Cohort” approach­ arguing that during the 1980s the increase in violence  was due to an increase in the prevalence of exceptionally violent  individuals (“super predators”) o Environmental factors influenced the rise, the impact of the drug trade and the direct relation to increased gun control use  Drug use by juveniles has greatly affected the juvenile justice system  Youth gangs The Development of Juvenile Justice th  Late 19  century: state should act as a parent would in the interest of the child  1960s: Supreme Court ushered in the juvenile rights period  1980s: juvenile system shifted to focusing on controlling youth crime  Idea that children should be treated differently came from common law in  England o <7 = incapable of felonious intent not criminally responsible o 7­14 = could be held accountable only if it could be show that they  understood the consequences of their actions o parens patriae: the state as parent; the state as guardian and protector of  all citizens (such as juveniles) who cannot protect themselves  LOOK AT TABLE 15.1 ON PAGE 471  The Puritan Period (1646­1824) o Massachusetts Stubborn Child Law  Imposed the view that the child was evil  Emphasized the need of the family to discipline & raise  Those who wouldn’t obey parents were dealt with by law  The Refuge Period (1824­1899) o Reformers focused their efforts on the urban immigrant poor declare  parents “unfit” if children roamed the streets = “out of control”’ o Believed children whose parents did not discipline and train them to abide  by the rules end up in prison o State used power to prevent delinquency  o Developed Institutions:  House of Refuge of New York:  Opened in 1825  Half­prison/ half­school  Orphaned children and those convicted of crime  Placed in these houses by court order b/c of neglect or  vagrancy   Stayed until they were “legal adults”  Reform Schools:  Provided discipline and education in a “homelike”  atmosphere  Lyman School for Boys:  o Westboro, Mass (1848) o Similar school for girls in 1855  Despite these institutions, children could still be arrested  and ultimately sent to prison  The Juvenile Court Period (1899­1960) o The problem of juvenile criminally became the focus of attention  o Progressive reformers pushed for the state to provide individualized care  and treatment to deviants of all kinds o Urged for probation, treatment, indeterminate sentences  o “Child savers” sought to use the power of the state to save children from a  life of crime   Wanted a separate juvenile court system that could address the  problems of individual youths  o Juvenile Court Act—Illinois (1899):  The act had four major elements:  A separate court for delinquent, dependent, and neglected  children   Special legal procedures that were less adversarial than  those in the adult system  Separation of children from adults in all portions of the  justice system  Programs of probation to assist the courts in deciding what  the best interest of the state and the child entails o Activists:  Jane Addams  Lucy Flower  Julia Lathrop o While the creation of the juvenile court was a positive development for  juveniles in general, some criticize the tendency for reformers to hold  different for girls and boys  E.g. girls prosecuted for promiscuity boys rarely charged for this  The Juvenile Rights Period (1960­1980) o Lawyers and scholars began to criticize the extensive discretion given to  juvenile justice officials  o U.S. Supreme Court expanded the rights of juveniles o Kent v. United States (1966)  Juveniles had the right to counsel   In re Gault (1967): extended due process rights to juveniles  In re Winship(1970): the standard of proof beyond a reasonable  doubt applies to juvenile delinquency proceedings   The court was not willing to give juveniles every due process  right…  McKeiver v. Pennyslvania (1971): juveniles do not have a constitutional right to a trial by jury but…   Breed v. Jones (1975): juveniles cannot be found  delinquent in juvenile court without a hearing on the  transfer; to do so violates the protection against double  jeopardy  Another area of change concerned status offenses: Any act  committed by a juvenile that is considered unacceptable for a  child, such as truancy or running away from home, but that would  not be a crime if it were committed by an adult  Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act included  provisions for taking status offenders out of correctional  institutions  The Crime Control Period (1980­2005) o Greater attention began to be focused on repeat offenders calling for  harsher punishment for juveniles o Schall v. Martin (1984): juveniles can be held in preventive detention if  there is concern that they may commit additional crimes while awaiting  court action o Crime control polices resulted in many more juveniles being tried in adult  courts  The “Kids Are Different” Period (2005­Present) o Roper v. Simmons: Court ruled that executions were unconstitutional for  crimes committed by those younger than 18 years of age o Emotional and intellectual development plays a role in how juveniles  understand particularly with regard to their rights during police  questioning  o Waiver: procedure by which the juvenile court waives its jurisdiction and  transfers a juvenile case to the adult criminal act o Courts are beginning to focus on the use of life without parole (LWOP)  for juvenile offenders  o In Miller v. Alabama, the majority ruled that juveniles cannot be subject to a mandatory LWOP sentence for homicide offenses o The juvenile system looks a lot more like the adult justice system, but it’s  less formal  The Juvenile Justice System   Characterized by two key factors: o The age of clients o The categories of cases under juvenile instead of adult court jurisdiction  Age of Clients o Upper age litht for original juvenile court jurisdiction varies:  18  b­day = 38 states & District of Columbia  17  b­day = 10 states  16  b­day = 2 states  Categories of Cases Under Juvenile Court Jurisdiction o Four types of cases:   Delinquency  Status offenses  Neglect  Dependency  o Delinquent: A child who has committed an act that if committed by an  adult would be a criminal act  Auto theft, robbery, assault  1.6 million cases each year  Males = most frequent in court o Status offenders:  Not violated a penal code  Charged as runaways, truants, or PINS: persons in need of  supervision—designates juveniles who are either status offenders  or thought to be on the verge of trouble  Females make up 42% of cases o Neglected child: A child who is receiving inadequate care because of  some action or inaction of his or her parents. o Dependent child: A child who has no parent or guardian or whose parents cannot give proper care. o Stats:   75% = Delinquency cases   1/5 of these are status offenses  20% = Neglect and dependency cases  5% = Special proceedings (adoption)  The Juvenile Justice Process  Philosophy that police, judges, and correctional officials should focus on  primarily on the interests of the child  Juvenile justice is a bureaucracy based on an ideology of social work.  Look at figure 15.4 on page 482  Police Interface o Many police departments have special juvenile units o Officer is often trained to relate to youths  Serves as an important link between the police and other  community institutions o Police must make 3 major decisions with regard to processing juveniles:  Whether to take the child into custody  Whether to request that the child be detained following  apprehension   Whether to refer the child to court o Several key factors influence how the police dispose of a case:  The seriousness of the offense  The willingness of the parents to cooperate and to discipline the  child  The child’s behavioral history as reflected in school and police  records  The extent to which the child and the parents insist on a formal  court hearing  The local political and social norms concerning dispositions in  such case  The officer’s beliefs and attitudes  Intake Screening at the Court o Processing of delinquency cases begins with a referral in the form of a  petition o Diversion: the process of screening children out of the juvenile justice  system without a decision by the court  Pretrial Procedures o Juveniles are informed of their rights and told that if a plea is given it must be voluntary o Detention hearing: determines if a juvenile is to be detained or released  prior to adjudication o The conditions in many detention facilities are bad and abuse is often  reported o 2003 Baltimore = new detention center opened called “monstrosity”  Transfer (Waiver) to Adult Court o First decision should this be transferred to the adult justice system? o 29 states = certain VIOLENT crimes, murder, rape, and armed robbery  are excluded from juvenile jurisdiction o 1970s # of cases transferred increased dramatically  o One result of the increased use of the waiver was that more juveniles were  being sent to adult state prisons  Use to decrease, so did the above  Adjudication  o Adjudication: the trial stage of the juvenile justice process o Look at table 15.2 on page 487  o Prosecutors advise intake officer, administer diversion programs,  negotiate pleas, and act as an advocate during judicial proceedings o Proceedings and records are traditionally closed to the public = protect  privacy   Disposition o Hearing to decide what action should be taken o Besides dismissal, four other choices:   Probation  Intermediate sanctions  Custodial care  Community treatment   Corrections o Resemble adult corrections  Both mix rehab and retributive sanctions o Differences from adult system stem from the parens patride concept o One predominant aim of juvenile corrections avoid unnecessary  incarceration  Treatment is believed to be more effective when the child is living  in a normal, supportive home environment   Probation o 57% of cases = placed on probation and released to parent/guardian o Juvenile probation operates in much the same way that adult probation  does, except…  Juvenile probation officers have smaller caseloads  Juvenile officer infuse with a sense that the offender can change  job is valuable/enjoyable  Intermediate Sanctions o Account for 15% of cases  o Judges suspend judgment—judge holds off on a definitive judgment   Custodial Care o 28% are placed in public or private facilities (girls less likely than boys) o Research suggests that juvenile court actors have biased perceptions of  minority juveniles youths receive severer treatment o Institutions are classified as either nonsecure or secure:  Nonsecure: foster homes, group homes, camps, ranches, or  schools—include a significant number of nonoffenders  Secure: reform schools and training schools—deal with juveniles  who HAVE committed crimes  Institutional Programs o Counseling, education, vocational, training, and an assortment of methods  have been incorporated into the juvenile programs of most states  Aftercare o Aftercare: Juvenile justice equivalent of parole, in which a delinquent is  released from a custodial sentence and supervised in the community  Community Treatment  o Much more common Problems and Perspectives  The juvenile system has organizational problems  “cyber bullying” more common


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