Climatology, Chapter 1
Climatology, Chapter 1 ES 385
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 385 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Anthony Vega in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Climatology in Earth Sciences at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Climatology- Scientific study of the behavior of the atmosphere - Holistic science that incorporates data, ideas, and theories from all parts of the Earth Lithosphere- Solid earth nearest to the surface, depth of 100 km Hydrosphere- part covered by water Cryosphere- region comprising of frozen water in all its forms Biosphere- crosscuts all other spheres and contains all life forms - Greek term “klima” means “slope” reflects the idea that distance from the equator and angle/slope of sun drove climate Meteorology- study of weather, instantaneous condition of the atmosphere at a certain place and time - Temperature, precipitation, humidity (short term intervals) few days at most - Involves only the present, immediate past, and very near future *National Weather Service forecasts are accurate for most location over a period of 72 hours Climate- state of the atmosphere for a given place over time - Climatologists study the processes to understand the long-term consequences of those processes Properties of Climate data: 1. Normals- average weather conditions at a place - Typically calculated for 30 year periods give a view of expected weather over course of a year 2. Extremes- describes maximum and minimum measurements of atmospheric variable that can be expected to occur at a certain place and time based on a long periods of observations 3. Frequencies- rate of incidence of a particular phenomenon at a particular place over a long period of time - Important for risk assessment, engineering, or agricultural applications Microscale- smallest atmospheric scale, phenomena operates along this scale are smaller than .3 miles and last for a few seconds or hours (Ex: top to bottom interaction of a leaf or a funnel cloud) Local Scale- operates between .3 to 3 miles, about the size of a small town (Ex: Thunderstorm) Mesoscale- operates between 3-60 miles, lasts a few hours to a few days (Ex: central region of a hurricane) Synoptic Scale- functions over areas between 60-6,000 miles, lasts a few days to weeks (Ex: cyclone systems, frequent and affects many people Planetary Scale- largest scale, study and view hemispheres or entire globe (Ex: pressure and wind belts) Boundary-layer climatology- subfield is primarily concerned with exchanges in energy, matter and momentum - Most vigorous exchange of energy and moisture occur in this layer because solar radiant energy striking the ground warms it greatly and rapidly compared with the atmosphere above it Physical Climatology- studies energy and matter as well, however it emphasizes the nature of atmospheric mater and energy at climatic time scales - Studies of causes of lightning, air pollution, etc. Hyrdroclimatology- interaction between the atmosphere and near surface water - Interfaces especially closely with the study of other “spheres” because water is present in all spheres Dynamic Climatology- general atmospheric dynamics, processes that induce atmospheric motion Synoptic Climatology- concerned with circulation but more regionally focused and usually involves more practical and specific applications - “seeks to explain key interactions between the atmosphere and surface environment, has great potential for basic and applied research in the environmental sciences” Regional Climatology- description of the climate of a particular region of the surface Paleoclimatology –before the advent of the instrumental weather record, involves the extraction of climatic data from indirect sources - Focuses biological, geological, etc resources such as tree rings, fossils, sediment deposited Bioclimatology- includes interaction of living things with their atmospheric environment Agricultural Climatology- deals with the impact of atmospheric properties and processes on living things of economic value Human Bioclimatology- related to life sciences, including biophysics and human physiology Applied Climatology- Concerned with the effects on climate on other natural and social phenomena - Attempts to improve the environment - Modify physical atmosphere to suit particular human needs Cloud Seeding- attempts to extract the maximum amount of precipitation from clouds in water scarce areas Daily mean temperature- average temperature for the entire day Urban heat island- cities grew, considerable bias in long-term records as artificial heat from urban resources - Contributors include concrete that absorbs solar energy, absence of vegetation and water surfaces, and the generation of waste heat by human activities Time of observation bias- involved data bias based on the time of day when measurements are recorded at different stations
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