Climatology, Chapter 2
Climatology, Chapter 2 ES 385
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 385 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Anthony Vega in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Climatology in Earth Sciences at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Second Law of Thermodynamics- states that energy moves from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration Hydrostatic equilibrium- a balance between the downward-directed gravitational force and the upward-directed buoyancy force in the atmosphere - The atmosphere is a subset of the air because it is composed solely of gases - However air contains not only gases but also aerosols Aerosols- solid and liquid particles suspended above the surface that are too tiny for gravity to pull downward - Solids: ice crystals, volcanic soot particles, salt crystals from the ocean and soil particles - Liquids: clouds and fog Newton’s second law of motion- force is the product of mass and acceleration Origin of the Earth and Atmosphere - Universe began about 15 billion years ago - Gravity caused matter to collect in various areas to form galaxies - Smaller amounts of matter are then condensed into stars which occur when hydrogen was compressed under its own gravitational weight Nuclear Fusion- process that converted lighter elements into heavier elements Nebula- When a star explodes sending heavy elements into galaxy creating these vast clouds of dusts - Our solar system is believed to have ford from one about 5 billion years ago Planetesimals- very small planets of condensed debris moving over eccentric orbits about the Sun Oort Cloud- collection of icy comets and dust that surrounds the outer edges of our solar system Solar Wind- radioactive particles from the Sun moving through space at nearly the speed of light Outgassing- primarily involved diatomic nitrogen and carbon dioxide with lesser amounts of water vaper, methane, and sulfur - Volcanic material cooled, gases were released through this process Condensation- water turning into vapor - Precipitation collected over time in low elevation areas creating oceans Atmospheric Composition - Diatomic Nitrogen makes up 78% of the atmosphere - Nitrogen has increased because it is not as effectively removable as other atmospheric gases Residence Time- mean length of time that an individual molecule remains in the atmosphere Evolution of Earth involves interactions with the biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Prokaryotes- single celled organism - 3.5 billion years ago - Absorbed nutrients directly from the surrounding environment Fermentation- process by which simple organisms acquire energy through the breakdown of food Eukaryotes- multicellular organisms, complex internal structures, release more CO 2 Photosynthesis- process by which green plants derive energy through the breakdown of food - Most of the atmospheric CO is stored in vast quantities of sedimentary rock, originally extracted from the atmosphere by living things Carbon Cycle- continuous movement of carbon through the earth-ocean- atmosphere system Reservoirs- components of a system that effectively store matter and/or energy for a certain period of time - Largest carbon reservoir is sedimentary rock which can store carbon for billions of years - Second largest reservoir is the oceans which act as a sink Fossil Fuels- deposits of carbon primarily in the form of coal, oil, and natural gas Keeling Curve- named for Charles Keeling, showed that CO release2 from fossil fuel combustion would accumulate significantly in the atmosphere Greenhouse Effect- energy is absorbed and is trapped in the atmosphere warming the Earth’s surface Constant Gases- those that have relatively long residence times in the atmosphere and that occur in uniform proportions - Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Neon, Helium, Krypton, Xenon Variable Gases- those that change in quantity from place to place or over time - Water vapor Chlorofluorocarbons- Faint Young Sun Paradox- apparent contradiction between a weak Sun but relatively warm global conditions Greenhouse gases- two most abundant is CO and wat2r vapor Methanogens- oxygen intolerant microbes Atmospheric Structure Troposphere- lowest layer of the atmosphere - Very thin, contains about 75% of the moss of the atmosphere Density- mass/volume Convection- give lowest layers of atmosphere buoyancy and causes the air to rise Environmental Lapse Rate- decrease of temperature usually occurs with increasing height through the troposphere Tropopause- top of the troposphere Stratosphere- layer above troposphere - Temperature remains somewhat constant Isothermal layer- any zone of relatively constant temperature with height Temperature Inversion- increase of temperature with height is caused by the absorption of UV radiation by the triatomic form of oxygen or ozone Electromagnetic Spectrum- full assemblage of all possible wavelengths of electromagnetic energy
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