HIST10 wk6 lecture notes
HIST10 wk6 lecture notes Hist 10
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christien Ng on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
The Roman Empire & The Rise of Christianity Tuesday, February 9, 2016 1:44 PM Empire 31BC-476AD Pax Romana 31BC-180AD Anarchy 180-284AD Diocletian 284-305 Constantine I 306-337 Maxentius Milvian Bridge 312 Milan Edict 313 Constantinople 320 Visigoths 376 Adrianople 378 Theodosius I 391 Rome 410 Romulus 476 Augustulus Bysantine 1453 31BC • Caius Octavius (Augustus) defeated Antonius and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium • They committed suicide • Rome Absorbed Egypt • Marks the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Empire ○ Empire was a monarchy ruled by one man; emperor ○ Augustus was Rome's first emperor • Once he is in charge, he makes a number of changes ○ He brings to an end a century long war and violence. ○ Inaugurates the "Golden Age" of the Roman empire; Pax Romana(Roman peace) 31BC-180AD ○ Empire was a monarchy ruled by one man; emperor ○ Augustus was Rome's first emperor • Once he is in charge, he makes a number of changes ○ He brings to an end a century long war and violence. ○ Inaugurates the "Golden Age" of the Roman empire; Pax Romana(Roman peace) 31BC-180AD § Period of peace and prosperity of the Roman Empire § It is during this time period that the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent § Scotland to Persian Gulf, Russia to Iraq 180AD-284AD • Marks the end of the Pax Romana and the beginning of a (just over) century of anarchy • Things were so bad because there was almost constant civil war ○ Reason: Roman generals were constantly rebelling against the emperor ○ Most of the soldiers were stationed along the frontier; two big armies in the north, one big army in the east, smaller armies scattered around the empire • During this period, the emperor has his own army because he spent most of his time either defending Rome against attack or rival Roman generals; but the emperor cannot be everywhere at once. The emperor must delegate authority. So he commands one big army, but other generals command other armies scattered around the empire. • Problems the emperor faced: 1. It was very difficult to control his generals that were stationed far away § Often, a Roman general of a Roman army would decide he wanted to be emperor § So he would go to his soldiers and promise them all sorts of perks and money if they helped make him emperor. § Usually the troops agreed and they would proclaim their general as Rome's new emperor, which led to civil war because the new emperor had to fight the old emperor. § Once the new guy takes over, he must immediately take care of the promises he made his soldiers. □ What usually happened if he did not fulfill his promises is they would be assassinated by his own guys; they would then proclaim a new guy to be the new emperor. § If that emperor was successful, a new Roman General would proclaim himself as emperor and the whole cycle would start again 2. During this time, for the first time in centuries, Rome faced major invasions from the outside; most notably attacks from the north and the east □ To the North, there were German Barbarian tribes □ To the east were the Assassanid Empire (the new Persian proclaim himself as emperor and the whole cycle would start again 2. During this time, for the first time in centuries, Rome faced major invasions from the outside; most notably attacks from the north and the east □ To the North, there were German Barbarian tribes □ To the east were the Assassanid Empire (the new Persian Empire) ® For a while, they were ruled by Greeks and then later taken over by the Partheons (for ~century) ® Finally the Persians were able to regain their independence and establish this new Persian empire ® The new Persian kings claimed to be descendants of the old Persian kings; also claimed to rule the old Persian Empire ® Claimed they wanted to take back the old empire; take back land they once controlled □ Faced numerous attacks from the North by German tribes and from the East by the Persian Empire □ Since they were fighting so many civil wars, it made it that much more difficult to defend from these attackers □ During this time, the first Roman emperor was killed in battle by a foreign enemy, captured by a foreign enemy and tortured; enemy armies reached all the way into Greece and Italy; Rome celebrated 1000yrs of establishment, however Romans feared Rome would not last much longer 284AD • New emperor, Diacletian (284 -305AD), takes over ○ Came to the throne the usual way during this period: § Came from a poor peasant family § Enlisted in the army § Rose up through the ranks w his great abilities until eventually he became a general § He then had the previous emperor assassinated § Defeated another rival in battle § Secured his place on the throne ○ One of the few to survive ○ Longest reign since Augustus • Made many changes to the Roman state and army • Was able to successfully prevent more civil wars while defending Rome against invasion • Reestablish peace ○ Population began to rise again and the economy began to recover ○ "saved Rome" 305AD • Was able to successfully prevent more civil wars while defending Rome against invasion • Reestablish peace ○ Population began to rise again and the economy began to recover ○ "saved Rome" 305AD • Diacletian retires • Almost immediately after, Rome is plunged into another civil war 306AD • Constantine I rises to power • Was a Roman general stationed in Britain who decided that he wanted to be emperor; gets his troops to support him • Is proclaimed emperor of Rome ○ PROBLEM: 6 other armies had proclaimed their general emperor (7total) • Comes down to Constantine vs Maxcentius ○ Fight it out to become emperor Battle of the Milvian Brid(central Italy) ○ § Day before the battle, Constantine is in his camp extremely nervous about the impending battle. He knows if he loses the battle, he loses his power and most likely his life. He prays to gods for help. According to him, an incredible sight appeared to him in the sky seen by him and his soldiers. There appeared a huge flaming cross, and on the cross appeared the words:" in this sign, you will conquer." but he did not understand the significance of the cross nor the ones written on it. But that night, as Constantine slept in his tent, (according to him) he was visited in his dreams by Jesus Christ. He explained to Constantine all about the religion of Christianity, the Christian god, who he was, and the significance of the cross. He told Constantine that he had to put the cross on his men's shields and banners and carry them into battle. He promises that if he does this (puts his faith in god) he will win. ○ Constantine wins the Battle of the Milvian Bridge and Maxcentius is killed; he will now be in charge Marks the first time Christianity is used for military purposes ○ 313AD • Constantine issues theEdict of Milan ○ Issued in the city of Milan ○ Laws immediately became active when the emperor issued them Important because it granted religious freedom to everyone in the Roman ○ empire including the Christians § For the first time in history, Christians are able to practice freely without fear of being persecuted ○ Once Christianity is legalized, its popularity skyrockets; people convert left and right empire including the Christians § For the first time in history, Christians are able to practice freely without fear of being persecuted ○ Once Christianity is legalized, its popularity skyrockets; people convert left and right ○ Constantine doesn't convert until he is on his death bed, but he did raise his sons as Christians § So when he dies and they take over, they become Rome's first Christian rulers in history ○ Popularity in the religion increased so much, the Roman emperor Theodosius Imade Christianity the only religion of the Empire 391AD ○ All religions except Christianity were outlawed ○ The states that followed Rome would also at some point adopt Christianity; Europe from the beginning has been Christian § Eventually the Europeans would exhort Christianity around the world, world religion § Had the Battle of the Milvian Bridge not happened, Christianity might not be as big as it is today 330AD • Constantine called for a new capital, New Rome or Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) • Establishes this in the East ○ According to Constantine, the East was more Valuable than the West ○ Almost everyone lived in the East ○ Most of the wealth in the empire was in the East ○ All the big cities were there ○ Because the east was so valuable, he wanted a capital in the east so that he could keep his eye on the most valuable prizes ○ When Constantine chose the spot, It quickly became the biggest and wealthiest city in the empire ○ Before the invention of gunpowder (1000later), Constantinople was impregnable --could not be taken by attack § Many would attack, none would succeed • The west had very few peopl- e-no money--and therefore could not support an army • The fall of the Roman empire would take 100yr (3 76-476) • Began with a barbaric tribe known as the isigoths • Entered the Roman empire in 3 76 378AD • Visigoths fought the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople • Visigoths defeat the Roman army • Romans were no longer able to recover from that defeat • Visigoths then began to roam around the Roman empire and the Romans were • Entered the Roman empire in 3 76 378AD • Visigoths fought the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople • Visigoths defeat the Roman army • Romans were no longer able to recover from that defeat • Visigoths then began to roam around the Roman empire and the Romans were unable to stop them • They eventually arrived in Italy 410AD • Visigoths capture Rome • First time in 800yrs a foreign enemy had captured Rome • These Visigoth's successes demonstrated how weak Western Rome was, so dozens of Visigoth tribes flooded over the boarders • What was once one Empire was now a dozen barbaric kingdoms ○ At some point all these German tribes adopted Christianity; the religion would continue even thought the Empire fell 476AD • End of the Roman Empire when Romulus Augustulus is kicked out ○ As a result of this, western Europe was plunged into a long, dark age • Eastern Europe survives and is known as the Bysantine Empire The Rise of Islam Thursday, February 11, 2016 1:42 PM Muhammad 570-672AD Hejira 622 Islam/Muslim Caliph Omar I 634-644 Jihad Muamya vs Ali 656-661 Sunni/shiite Ummayyad 661-750 Constantinople 717-718 Charles Martel Tours 732 Abu al-Abbas 750-754 Abbasids 750-1258 Talus 751 Harum al-Rashid 785-809 • Arabia • Populated by Arabs • The Araba people had been in Arabia for thousands of years • They were a sematic people (related to the hebrews, phonecians, many others) • Yet so far, they have not had a big impact on history 570AD • Muhammadwas born in the city of Mecca (modern Saudi Arabia) • His father died before he was born and his mother shortly after he was born; so he was raised by his uncle ○ His uncle was in the caravan business (camel business) § Camels were the ships of the desert 570AD • Muhammadwas born in the city of Mecca (modern Saudi Arabia) • His father died before he was born and his mother shortly after he was born; so he was raised by his uncle ○ His uncle was in the caravan business (camel business) § Camels were the ships of the desert § Could withstand high temperatures, carry lots of stuff on their backs, did not neet much water § If someone wanted to move stuff around the desert, they would call upon the caravan business • Muhammad went into the caravan business once he was old enough and traveled extensively ○ He came into contact with many different peoples and cultures; which would later have a big impact on his career ○ He met his wife through the caravan business § She was a wealthy widow, which allowed Muhammad to retire at the age of 25 § This meant he now had a lot of free time on his hands □ He often liked to leave the city of Mecca and spend time out in the desert ~610AD • One day when Muhammad was in the desert, (he said) he was visited by the angel Gabriel. • Gabriel said that Muhammad had been chosen by the Gods to introduce a new religion to the world 610-622AD • Muhammad went back and forth between Mecca and the dessert • Each time he went into the desert, more of this religion would be revealed to him and he would then go back to Mecca and reveal what he had been told • Slowly, he built up a following by people in Mecca who truly believed he had been chosen by god • But the more followers he gained, the more suspicious the leaders of Mecca became ○ They were afraid Muhammad's religion might catch on ○ They were afraid because even before Muhammad, Mecca was an important religious center § A big black meteorite that had fallen from the sky § Because it had fallen from the sky, people believed it had magic powers § People came all around to see it □ Main source of income for the city § The leaders were afraid that they would lose lots of money if Muhammad's religion kept growing 622AD powers § People came all around to see it □ Main source of income for the city § The leaders were afraid that they would lose lots of money if Muhammad's religion kept growing 622AD • They fled north to Yathrib • This event fled Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib was called th ejira ("the flight" in Arabic) • This is considered to be the official beginning of Islam • It's so important because when Muhammad and his followers get to Yathrib, the population quickly converts to the new religion • Muhammad becomes the religious, political, and military leader of Yathrib ○ Would even name the city in his honor in what would now be known as Medina, the city of the Prophet § Marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar (AH: After Hegira) • The religion he creates is known as Islam (means "surrender to the will of god" in Arabic) ○ A person who practices this religion is known as a Muslim ○ The most important belief of Islam: there is no god but Allah (the guy), and Muhammad is his prophet § According to Muhammad, Allah is the same as the Christian and the Hebrew god § Muhammad did not consider himself to be the guy but the last from a long line of prophets (Moses, Jesus, etc) 622-632 • Mecca is conquered ○ The ruling family sawa the light and quickly converted to the new religion ○ Not only a military conquest but a religious one ○ Eventually, most everyone in Arabia would convert to Islam ○ This was the fist time in history that most Arabs would be unified; which had never happened before • After Muhammad's death, his followers got together and elected a successor ○ The title given to the new leader was cal-(he representative of Muhammad on Earth) ○ The caliph was the religious, political, and military leader of all Muslims • 1st caliph didn't do anything • 2nd caliph: Caliph Omar I (634-644) ○ Important bc during this period, Islam was transformed from an Arabian religion into a major world religion ○ it was transformed into a major world religion because a bunch of Muslims • 1st caliph didn't do anything • 2nd caliph: Caliph Omar I (634-644) ○ Important bc during this period, Islam was transformed from an Arabian religion into a major world religion ○ it was transformed into a major world religion because a bunch of little armies went out and conquered a huge empire • Reasons why the Muslim army was so successful: ○ It's 2 most powerful __ were exhausted from fighting each other for decades § The muslims destroyed the empire § Most of the Persian empire is now conquered by the Muslims § They were able to take over important Byzantines from the Romans ○ The Muslims were tolerant of other peoples and religions § Muhammad said there was to be no compulsion in religions § People were not forced to convert to Islam □ If they did not convert, they had to pay a tax □ As long as they paid, they were left alone § Especially weltreated were the Christians and the Jews (the people of the bible) □ Many were happier under Muslim rule esp Jews bc before they were persecuted by the Christians ○ Jihad § Holy war § This meant the Muslim soldiers fighting to expand/defend the city of Islam need not fear death, bc if they were killed, all their sins would be forgiven and they would go to the garden of paradise □ Major motivation factor for Muslim soldiers 656AD • Muslims fought their first civil war ○ Began as a dispute over who would be the next caliph ○ 2 candididates: Muawiya & Ali ○ Ali said he should be the caliph bc he was related to Muhammad & only people related to __ should be caliph ○ Muawiya said it should not be hereditary; the best man should be elected to lead the Muslim people ○ Since no compromise could be reached, civil war broke out that would last from 656 -661 ○ Muawiya wins the civil war, and Ali is killed • This civil war brought about a major split in Islam that still persists today ○ After Muawiya won, most Muslims accepted him as their leader ○ They became known ass unni ○ Since no compromise could be reached, civil war broke out that would last from 656 -661 ○ Muawiya wins the civil war, and Ali is killed • This civil war brought about a major split in Islam that still persists today ○ After Muawiya won, most Muslims accepted him as their leader ○ They became known ass unni ○ There were some who refused to accept him as leader and continued to follow the descendants of Ali § They became known as the sh -iites, or the partisans of Ali 12 descendants of Ali, but the last one disappeared ○ § Shiites believed that he had hidden and would one day reappear and lead the sh-iites to the conquest of the world § Today, <10% are Shiites (Iran, Iraq) ○ Sunnis and Shiites were and are still known as bitter enemies • Muawiya wins civil war and established the first ruling dynasty (monarchy) known as the Ummayyad Dynasty ○ Muawiya and his descendants would rule as caliphs from 661 -750AD ○ During this period, expansion continuedl the Muslims still tried to conquere europe ○ First, they tried to conquer Europe from the east (Bysantine empire); and to do that, they had to capture Constantinople 717 • Muslims gather together a huge army & navy and attacked Constantinople • They spent exactly one year outside the city (-718); however, they were unable to capture the city ○ Reasons why they failed: § Byzantines knew an attack was coming □ Had plenty of time to stockpile supplies, esp food □ Had built an incredible underground water system ; plenty of water § Byzantine was a peninsula w many walls that made it difficult to enter § Had a secret weapon; cannon -like □ Were devastating on Muslim soldiers and ships § Religion □ Eastern Orthodox Christian; different from Roman Catholicism □ Believed that they had the only "real" religion • Constantinople survives • Since they could not get into the east, they tried in the west ○ Eventually conquered the rest of North Africa ○ From there they jumped over to Europe and conquered Spain in 711 732 • Muslims move into France • Constantinople survives • Since they could not get into the east, they tried in the west ○ Eventually conquered the rest of North Africa ○ From there they jumped over to Europe and conquered Spain in 711 732 • Muslims move into France • "Kingdom of the Franks" • Ruler of the Franks was harles Martel "Charles the Hammer" • Battle of Tours 732 ○ Franks defeat the Muslims and drive them back into Spain ○ Created a huge setback for Muslim armies ○ Europe had been saved from Muslim conquest ○ As a result of the battle, a balance had been reached bt the two religions (Islam&Christianity) ○ Because of these failures, the Ummayyads were overthrown bA bu al-Abbas "the bloodthirsty" 750AD • Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Ummayyad dynasty and began a new dynasty called the Abbasid Dynasty (701258) • During this time the Muslims reached the peak of their success • Muslim armies marched against China 751AD • Battle of the Talus River ○ Muslims defeated Chinese ○ Muslims now reached its greatest territorial extent ○ Muslim empire now stretched form atlantic ocean through middle east, to borders of china ○ Also as result of this battle, Muslims take over central Asia and is muslim ever since Harun al-Rashid "the Upright" • The great nephew of Abu a -lAbbas • Caliph from 785-809 • During his reign, the Muslims ruled much of the known world • Caliphate period (rule of the caliphs) 809AD • Abbasid empire broke apart; too big to hold together • Smaller, independent Muslim countries emerge • Last time in history Muslims were politically unified • Islam would continue to have an impact on
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