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Notes for 2/16/16

by: mwastler

Notes for 2/16/16 NUTR 250


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monosaccharides, polysaccharides, first notes for exam one, enzymes
Human Nutrition and Metabolism
Joel Timothy Cramer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by mwastler on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 250 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Joel Timothy Cramer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Metabolism in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
1. Carbohydrates (CHO) –ch.5 a. Composed of C, H, and O b. Produced by plants via photosynthesis c. Two basic categories i. Simple CHO 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides ii. Polysaccharides  complex CHO 1. Starch 2. Glycogen 3. Fiber 2. Monosaccharides a. Contain 6 C, 12 H, and 6 H i. Slightly different configuration ii. 6C H12 O6 b. 3 main energy producing simple CHO- monosaccharides i. Glucose (most common/abundant; aka blood sugar)- in dietary sources also called dextrose ii. Fructose- “fruit sugar”; fruits, vegetables, honey, etc. also in high-fructose corn syrup iii. Galactose- milk and milk products; part of ‘lactose’ “other monosaccharides” iv. Sugar alcohols- monosaccharide derivatives 1. Xylitol, 2. Mannitol, 3. Sorbitol v. Pentoses- 5- carbon chains 1. Ribose and deoxyribose 3. Disaccharides a. Two monosaccharides liked together by condensation reaction b. Two types of bonds that connect monosaccharides i. Alpha: C-O-C: maltose and sucrose ii. Beta: lactose and fiber contain beta bonds 1. Not easily broken down by intestinal enzymes c. 3 types of disaccharides i. Maltose: glucose-glucose, alpha bond 1. Alcoholic beverages ii. Sucrose: glucose-fructose, alpha bond 1. Sugar cane, sugar beets, maple syrup (tree sap), and table sugar iii. Lactose: glucose-galactose, beta bond 1. Requires the lactase enzyme in sufficient amounts a. Milk and milk products b. Lactose intolerants: insufficient lactase leads to undigested lactose  fermentation, gas, and bloating 4. Complex CHO  polysaccharides a. Oligosaccharides: contain 3-10 monosaccharides linked together (bonded)- contain 1 or more beta bonds b. Two primary oligosaccharides: i. Raffmose ii. Stachyose (know these two) 1. ^^ indigestible  bacterial fermentation  gas 2. Found commonly in beans, legumes 3. “Beano” – enzyme preparation that breaks down oligosaccharides a. Alphagalactosidase (don’t need to memorize) c. Polysaccharides contain many monosaccharides bonded together i. Alpha vs. beta bonds determine digestibility ii. Digestible polysaccharides 1. Starch (plants) a. Amylose i. Strait chained polysaccharide b. Amylopectin i. Branched chain polysaccharide 2. Glycogen a. The storage form of glucose in the body b. Liver glycogen (about 90g  converted to blood sugar) c. Muscle glycogen (about 300g  glucose for muscle fuel) Assumption 1: we burn 100kcal/mile at race pace Marathon: 26 miles x 100kcal/mile = 2,600 kcal Liver Glycogen: about 90g x 4kcal/g = 360kcal Muscle Glycogen: about 300g x 4kcal/g = 1,200kcal 1,560kcal of stored glycogen (360 + 1,200) Energy need= 2,600kcals Energy stored= 1,560kcals 1,040kcals deficit for finishing marathon (2,600 – 1,560) ****end result  1. CHO loading prior to race 2. CHO intake during race to avoid “hitting the wall” ***look at picture of screen on phone*** Quickest to slowest – due to the number of ends that can be released at any given moment: 1. Glycogen 2. Amylopectin 3. Amylose *go over “ose” structures but do not have to memorize…go over lipid structures though* Indigestible Polysaccharides 1. Fiber- or “total fiber” a. Dietary fiber- occurs naturally in food b. Functional fiber- added to foods for health benefits i. NOTE: nutrition facts panel only includes dietary fiber


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