New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chem 102 Module 2: Solutions and Colligative Properties

by: Lyna Nguyen

Chem 102 Module 2: Solutions and Colligative Properties Chem 102

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Chemistry > Chem 102 > Chem 102 Module 2 Solutions and Colligative Properties
Lyna Nguyen
Texas A&M
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Bethel

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Module 2
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Bethel
Class Notes
Chemistry, Chem, chem 102, tamu
25 ?




Popular in General Chemistry 2

Popular in Chemistry

This page Class Notes was uploaded by Lyna Nguyen on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 102 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. Bethel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Texas A&M University.

Similar to Chem 102 at Texas A&M


Reviews for Chem 102 Module 2: Solutions and Colligative Properties


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/09/16
Module 2 Solutions and Colligative Properties 131 135 131 132 Units of Concentration m amount of solutemol per kilogram of solvent 0 Molality amount of solutemol mass of solventkg M 0 Not useful when dealing with most of colligative properties 0 Moles per liter of solution X amount of that componentNa divided by the total amount of all of the components 0 Mole fraction Na Na Nb mass of one component divided by the total mass of the mixture x 100 0 Common unit in consumer products 0 Parts per millionppm refers to relative quantities o solute and solvent by mass 1 ppm 10 g of substance in a sample with a total mass of 1 million g The Solution Process Why do solutions form 0 Factors Separate solute particles endothermic Separate solvent particles endothermic Solutesolvent interactions exothermic 0 Relative magnitude of AH determine overall heat of solution when the concentration of ions will not increase further and any additional solid added after this point will remain as a solid at the bottom of the break no change in amount 0 Example of dynamic equilibrium more solute can dissolve more solute dissolved than possible unstable concentration of solute in a saturated solution in equilibrium with undissolved solute Solvation process of solutes dissolving in solvents Liquids Dissolving in Liquids o 2 liquids that can be mixed in any proportion to form a homogenous mixture 0 do not fully mix in all proportions Exist with each other in layers Nonpolar liquids gt miscible Polar liquids gt miscible Polar nonpolar gt immiscible o Solids dissolving liquids Nonpolar solids nonpolar liquid gt readily Polar solids polar liquids gt readily Nonpolar solids polar liquids gt not so readily Polar solids nonpolar liquids gt not so readily lonic soluble in polar insoluble in nonpolar Solids dissolving in liquids o Nonpolar solids nonpolar liquids gt readily 0 Polar solids polar liquids gt readily o Nonpolar solids polar liquids gt not so readily 0 Polar solids nonpolar liquids gt not so readily 0 Network solids do not dissolve in water Enthalpy of Solution 0 Guidelines for quotlike dissolve likequot Entropy More entropy more favorable Enthalpy By viewing bonding forces 0 Non polar solute nonpolar solvent AH 0 o Ionic dissolving in water AH lt0 Guarantees soluble o highly exothermic Energy is evolved when ions dissolve where each ion is surrounded by water 0 Water soluble AH gt exothermic or only slightly endo o Enthalpy of solution Thermodynamic Data 0 Enthalpy of formations of solid liquid solution 133 Factors Affecting Solubility Pressure and Temperature 0 Dissolving Gasses in liquids Henry s Law P partial pressure S moikg K varies on solvent temperature dependent 0 Always exothermic 0 Pressure has no signi cant effect on solubility of liquids and solids Temperature Effects on Solubility le Chatelier s Principle 0 Solubility of gas in water decreases with increasing temperature 0 Gas liquid ltgt saturated solution energy a change in any factor determining an equilibrium causes the system to adjust by shifting in the direction that reduces or counteracts the effect of the change 134 Colligative Properties 0 properties that depend on the relative number of solute and solvent particles in a solution and not on their identities 0 Another de nition amount of solute particles 0 Only applies to solutions 0 Changes in Vapor Pressure Raoult s Law Module 2 Page 2 Final pressure is always less than pure solvent VP are additive ldeal solution obeys Raoult s law 0 Good approximation 0 For it to apply forces of attraction between solute and solvent must be the same 0 Boiling Point Elevation K molal boiling point constantsolvent O 0 Units Cm 0 Always positive l Vant Hoff Factor 0 1 molecular o Freezing Point Depression 0 Lower than pure solvent K freezing point depression constant Always negative values 0 AT lt0 decrease in temp Osmotic Pressure 0 movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration Low gt high 0 measure of pressure created by the column of solution for the system at equilibrium greater than equal less than 0 Pi MRTi M molarity Colligative Properties and Molar Mass Determination 1 Use AT kmi a Calculate concentrate 2 Mol solute moikg kg solvent a Amount of solute 3 Molar mass g solutemol solute a Molar mass of unknown gmol o Colligative Properties of Solutions containing lons o ratio of experimentally observed dissociation of particles after split up For elevationdepression equations 135 Colloids represent a state intermediate between a solution and a suspension Module 2 Page 3 0 Higher molar masses 0 Particles are relatively large 0 Particles are suspended but not dissolved o Solute is dispersed solvent is continuous phase 0 Tyndall Effect Scatter visible light when dispersed in a solvent making the mixture appear cloudy 0 Do not settle o I solid in uid 0 structure that prevents it from being mobile 0 High surface areas because small size of the particles 0 Types of colloids colloids with water 0 Water fearing Weak forces water loving Strongly attracted to water one liquid in another 0 Emulsifying agents keeps them from separating 0 Also called emulsi er Surfactants Substances that affect the properties of surfaces and therefore affect the interaction between 2 phases 0 Lowers the tension of water Module 2 Page 4


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.