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Week 4 Humanities Notes

by: Jamie Higgins

Week 4 Humanities Notes 23032

Jamie Higgins

GPA 4.0

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Reformation, Absolutism and the Counter-Reformation
Humanities II
Dr. Bruce MacQueen
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Higgins on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23032 at Tulsa Community College taught by Dr. Bruce MacQueen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Humanities II in Arts and Humanities at Tulsa Community College.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
Lecture 7 2.2.16 The Reformation Explodes • Luther never wanted to be the “head” of the Church, disliked the name “Lutheran” (preferred “Evangelical”) • There were disputes within his movement almost from the beginning, especially concerning the doctrine of the Eucharist, which entailed different views of sacramentalism and the role of the clergy • Once the monolith of the Catholic Christianity had cracked (again), the cracking continued Calvin and Swingli : Protestantism in Geneva • Calvinism differs from lUtheranism is several basic respects - Salvation by faith is rejected in favor of salvation by predestination - Christ is only present in the Eucharist, believed it was only symbolic • Geneva came to be controlled and even basically governed by Calvin and Swingli in a way that Luther never even wanted - There is a direct line of transmission from Geneva to colonial Massachusetts (Puritans) Calvinism • Salvation by predestination - God has already selected those whom he intends to save - These are “the elect” who constitute the real Church of Christ on Earth - They can be recognized by their spiritual strength • Rejection of the episcopate - The apostolic authority died with the 12 apostles Jesus chose - Scripture gives authority for there to be “elders” (Greek presbytery) in every congregation, and these men overn the whole church • The Eucharist is a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper, not a sacrament (Baptism is the only sacrament) The Reformation in England • Henry VIII asks for an annulment - His wife Catherine daughter of the King of Spain has had only one child a daughter Lecture 7 2.2.16 - She had been married to Henry’s older brotherArthur who died after 20 weeks of marriage (at age 15) before his father died (so he was never a king). This raised some technical questions about the validity of the marriage to Henry • When the Pope refuses, Henry breaks with Rome - The king became the head of the Church in England - All the monasteries in England and Wales were disbanded and their property was confiscated “High Church” and “Low Church” in England • Although Henry broke with Rome and confiscated the monasteries he was reluctant to change the theology of the Church of England (other than the primacy of the Pope) • They used English more in the Mass rather Latin came later (producing the Book of Common Prayer) • Henry abhorred Lutherism and did what he could to prevent it from coming to England • It was a groundswell of popular support for Protestantism, causing a division into “High Church” (Anglo-Catholic) and “Low Church” (More like Evangelical) • Calvinism took root in Scotland (Presbyterian Church) Where does Shakespeare fit in? • The reign of Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIII byAnne Boleyn) began in 1558 and ended in 1603 - Shakespeare lived from 1564 and 1616 “Elizabethan” England produced many great poets and dramatists besides Shakespeare : - Ben Johnson, Christopher Marlowe, and others • Elizabeth was followed by James I (who was already James VI of Scotland and was the “King James” of the KJV) who was followed by his son Charles I, who was overthrown in the English Civil War and be headed by the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell • The “Elizabethan” period is a window of power, prosperity, brilliance, preceded by the chaos of Henry VIII and followed by Civil War Lecture 7 2.2.16 The Zeitgeist and Genuis Loci of Elizabethan London • Reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Conflict with Spain - Problem of succession - Simmering religions conflict • Concentration of geniuses - Shakespeare - Christopher Marlowe Ben Johnson - - Francis Bacon
 Lecture 8 2.4.16 Macbeth (Act 5, Scene 5, lines 17-28) “Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time And all our yesterdays have lighted tools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told b y an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.” The Bourbon Kings of France • Henri IV (1589-1610) Ended religious wars in France by conventing to Catholicism - • Louis XIII (1610-1643) - Left much of the decision-making to Cardinal Richelieu • Louis XIV (1643-1715) - The “Sun King” - Built the palace of Versailles - Best known quote : “L’etat c’est moi” which means “the state, that’s me” Absolutism • The king is the living embodiment of the state, ordained by God and thus ruling by “divine right” • Within the boundaries of his kingdom, his decisions cannot be challenged, even by the church • The power of the landed aristocracy cannot be allowed to limit the king’s authority in any way • At the same time, and by the same token, the king has the same responsibility for the state as a father has towards his family. - When Louis sad, “I am the state,” he was not bragging, he was complaining “I have no private life” Lecture 8 2.4.16 The Counter-Reformation • The Catholic reaction to the Protestant Reformation occurred in two different ways: - Arejection of Protestant theology and ecclesiology, with a reassertion of Catholic teaching - Reforms addressing the problems raised by Luther (ending selling of indulgences) • The Counter Reformation was implemented by: - The Catholic kings, especially the Kings of Spain and France (after Henri IV) - The Jesuit order, founded by a Spanish solider Ignatius Loyola, who experience a conversion after being wounded in battle ✴ ✴ Il Gesu - Home church of Jesuit in Rome Sant’Ignazio Church in Rome (completed 1650)


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