BIOL 5600 Notes 2/9/16
BIOL 5600 Notes 2/9/16 BIOL 5600
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
NERVOUS SYSTEM Three broad functions: 1) Motor (glandular response) -Output -PNS 2) Sensory - Input -PNS 3) Integration - Data processing -CNS Nervous system: -Runs rapidly -In milliseconds Endocrine: -Runs slower -Takes minutes, hours, days, years Cell type: NEURON *------(< -Typical drawing used is of a multi polar neuron structure (Classic structure) There are not random pathways for info/commands coming in and out, the system is complex The complexity of the nervous system comes from the wiring Neuroglia cells do not transmit or receive signals The complex arrangement: I. CNS, Central nervous system -Brain and spinal cord -Responsible for integration Integration: of CNS -neurons start and end in CNS called interneurons (association neurons) -have a multipolar structure -brain is made of billions and billions of interneurons II. PNS, Peripheral nervous system -12 pairs of cranial nerves -31 pairs of spinal nerves -Two components 1) Sensory-input 2) Motor commands-output *Nerves are highways… there are two lanes… input and output. A) Afferent nervous system -Incoming, handles input -Sensory -There are different kinds of sensory information -5 different senses: vision, hearing, taste, touch i. Cranial nerves deal with special senses -Vision, hearing, taste, smell -Each sense is carried by specific cranial nerves ii. Somatosensory information -Touch, pressure, pain, temperature -Senses from skin -In skeletal muscle cells iii. Viscerosensory -Autonomic sensory -In visceral organs *Afferent system is not random, but not as clear in their paths as the efferent system B) Efferent Nervous System -Motor *Subdivisions are more specific that afferent i. Somatic nervous system -Motor commands to skeletal muscle -Voluntary -Each cell gets a neuron. One axonal branch with a motor neuron to each cell (The cell body is in the nervous system, and the axon is really long... it goes all the way to the muscle cell it innervates) ii. Autonomic nervous system -Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands -Involuntary -Has two motor neurons going to an effector -“Dual system” automatic control to speed up or slow down -Two subdivisions: a) Sympathetic -Fighter flight response -Revs you up -Stimulatory b) Parasympathetic -Vegetative -Chills you out -Maintains the status you’re in during relaxing times *Dual innervation between these two systems Ex. Your heart gets a motor neuron from parasympathetic and sympathetic, so it can respond either way up or down, when necessary -The first motor neuron is long, and the second is short Overall hierarchy -Divergence of signals -Multiple axonal terminals on dendrites all inputting on the cell body Convergence of information to a single neuron -Can be excitatory or inhibitory Input -Dendrites/cell body -Afferent side of the neuron Output -Efferent -Motor neurons -Neurons in the PNS going to an effector -Multipolar in structure Sensory neurons -Neurons that begin in the peripheral nervous system -Have a different structure -A unipolar structure -Touch, pressure, pain, temperature, (TPPT) -Short axon -Long dendrite -Can be somatosensory or viscerosensory -Input, afferent -Output, efferent *Spinal nerves are a collection of the axons of the motor neurons and the dendrites of the unipolar neurons Bipolar neuron is another sensory neuron -Relatively short and fat. -Square shape -Has afferent and efferent “sides” -Transduce special senses (Sight, sound, taste, smell) -In specific cranial nerves (factory nerve, optic nerve) Cells that support these types of neurons: neuroglia/glial cells -Do not transmit signals -Do support and protect neuronal processes and cell bodies -Find them in the PNS and CNS 1) Schwann cells -Only glial cell in PNS -Neurolemmocytes -Functionally parallel/equiv. to oligodendrocytes in CNS 2) Oligodendrocytes (CNS) 3) Astrocytes (CNS) 4) Ependymal cells (CNS) 5) Microglia Schwann cell: -Speed the transmission of the signal -The dendrites of unipolar and dendrites of motor neurons have Schwann cells around them -Cells wrap around these structures, but don’t reach all the way around -The cells are beside each other, but do not touch each other -The gap in-between the cells are called nodes of Ranvier -you find v.r. sodium and potassium channels in the nodes When the action potential is being regulated by the opening and closing of channels, this is called continuous conduction Because of layers of white myelin in the Schwann cell, the signals jump from node to node -Called salutatory conduction -Myelination is important for fast signals and responses -Don’t get fully myelinated until after toddlers oligodendrocytes are the functional equivalent to Schwann cells. -They look different, but do the same thing -They myelinate (put white phosphoric substance) on long axons of interneurons -You get salutatory conduction through these cells you have cns and pns white matter -white matter of pns, because you’re myelinating long processes by Schwann cells, is called nerves. -The equivalent of nerves in cns are called tracts areas that are not myelinated are called gray matter -portions of nervous system that is unmyelinated are dendrites, cell bodies, and axons -in cns, there are clusters of unmyelinated dendrites, cell bodies, and short axons called nuclei -in the pns, these clusters are called ganglia
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