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PSY 311 Chapter 4 Notes - Emotion & the Nervous System

by: Elliana

PSY 311 Chapter 4 Notes - Emotion & the Nervous System PSY 311

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY 311 > PSY 311 Chapter 4 Notes Emotion the Nervous System
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Combined textbook & lecture notes covering everything on Topic 4
Ray Winters
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/09/16
PSY 311 Emotion Topic 4 The Nervous System, Emotions, & Motivation Autonomic Nervous System • Neurons extending from spinal cord to organs (heart, lungs, stomach, smooth muscles surrounding arteries) • Involved in involuntary bodily func▯ons (heart rate, temperature, etc.) • Sympathe▯c Branch: ◦ Clusters of neurons act at the same ▯me "in sympathy" with each other ◦ Engage fight or flight response ◦ Prepares body for escaping situa▯ons threatening to survival ◦ Effects: Delivers oxygen & glucose to muscles, increases heart rate, releases adrenaline • Parasympathe▯c Branch: ◦ Opposite effects of sympathe▯c branch ◦ Slows down heartbeat & breathing ◦ Facilitates diges▯on & metabolism Physiological Measures of Emo▯on • Heart Rate ◦ Electrocardiogram (EKG) ◦ Displays electrical ac▯vity associated w. heart rate • Blood Pressure • Respira▯on Rate • Skin Conductance (sweat) • Pupil Dila▯on • Cardiac Pre-Ejec▯on Period ◦ Force of heart beats Hormones & Endocrine System Emo▯onal Hormones: • Epinephrine - adrenaline • Cor▯sol - stress response • Estrogen ◦ High levels -> mood enhancement ◦ Low levels -> depressive symptoms • Testosterone ◦ Mood enhancing ◦ Also factors into anger & aggression Emo▯on & the Nervous System • Physiological responses are closely ▯ed to emo▯onal experience • Emo▯ons have different physiological signatures • The extent of physiological arousal determines intensity but not the type of emo▯onal feelings Research Meta Analysis • Happiness generally involves less physiological arousal than the nega▯ve emo▯ons: r eg◦ A ◦ Fear 1 PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Sadness ◦ Disgust • Heart rate accelerates more during: r eg◦n A ◦ Fear ◦ Sadness ◦ Disgust • Anger involves higher blood pressure than fear & smaller increases in heart rate Physiological Aspects of Posi▯ve Emo▯ons • Posi▯ve emo▯ons help ppl recover from sympathe▯c arousal associated w. nega▯ve emo▯on General Adapta▯on Syndrome • Adapta▯on to stress in 3 stages: • Alarm ◦ Brief period of high arousal of sympathe▯c nervous system • Resistance ◦ Stage of prolonged but moderate arousal ◦ Adrenal cortex secrets cor▯sol, epinephrine, & norepinephrine ◦ Enables maintenance of high ac▯vity levels & wound healing • Exhaus▯on ◦ Weakness, fa▯gue, loss of appe▯te, lack of interest ◦ Body is weakened by bracing for fights against threats ◦ Immune system becomes less ac▯ve HPA axis • Hypothalamic pituitary adrenocor▯cal axis ◦ Hypothalamus connects to pituitary gland ◦ Pituitary gland s▯mulates cor▯cal part of Adrenal glands • We become energized by surges of epinephrine released • Adrenal gland releases cor▯sol: enhances metabolism & increases availability of fuels Chronic Stress • Weakens the immune system over ▯me due to chronic ac▯va▯on l os▯roc o t e rusopxe d egno l o◦r P Mo▯va▯on • General desire or willingness to do something/take ac▯on to achieve a goal • Mo▯va▯on is what causes us to act • Refers to the way our behaviors are ini▯ated, sustained, directed, & terminated Cruise Control Model (Carver's Model) • The rela▯onship btwn an individual's emo▯onal state & the mo▯va▯on to change behavior • The appraised rate of progress toward incen▯ves & away from threats ◦ 2 bipolar dimensions: approach & avoidance • An individual constantly monitors their rate of progress towards their various goals • Subjec▯ve sense of well-being (happiness) is dependent on the assessed rates • Cogni▯ve Appraisal of the rate of progress toward a goal or away from a threat leads to changes in mo▯va▯on based on the emo▯onal responses generated 2 PSY 311 Emotion ◦ The way the brain regulates rate of progress toward a goal is similar to the way a cruise control keeps a car moving at a constant speed ◦ Cruise control (with fluctua▯ng amounts of gasoline fed thru the engine) keeps the velocity constant ◦ In the same way, mo▯va▯on (fluctua▯ng depending on the situa▯on) keeps velocity of approach toward goals consistent • The rate of progress (velocity) produces no affect - no mood level • Posi▯ve or nega▯ve affect are only generated with the rate of progress is too fast or slow • Posi▯ve & nega▯ve affect signal that the person needs to adjust their rate of progress • Posi▯ve Affect: ◦ Decreases mo▯va▯onal effort & rate of progress ◦ If you are progressing toward your incen▯ve at a faster rate than expected: • Indicates that the person's rate of progress toward a goal is higher than their reference rate • Can be the result of the ac▯va▯on of either BIS or BAS ◦ Less effort is needed to pursue that goal • Diminished effort un▯l posi▯ve affect is removed • Person either coasts or switches to another incen▯ve or threat • Nega▯ve Affect: ◦ Increases mo▯va▯onal effort & rate of progress ◦ When rate of progress toward an incen▯ve is too slow: ◦ Nega▯ve affect of anxiety (mo▯va▯on) ◦ Person exerts more effort un▯l the nega▯ve affect diminishes & the person is moving at an acceptable rate again • Thus, nega▯ve affect is associated w. increases in mo▯va▯on • The greater the nega▯ve affect, the greater the intensity of mo▯va▯on • Behavioral Ac▯va▯on System (BAS) ◦ Approach mo▯va▯onal system ◦ Manages approach to incen▯ves • Ela▯on & eagerness on the high end (doing well) • Sadness & depression on the bo▯om end (doing poorly) • Behavioral Inhibi▯on System (BIS) ◦ Manages avoidance & withdrawal when threatened • Relief & calmness on the high end (doing well) • Fear & anxiety on the low end (doing poorly) • BAS & BIS: ◦ Generate emo▯ons based on appraised rate of progress toward incen▯ves & appraised rate of progress in moving away from threats ◦ Both are sources of posi▯ve & nega▯ve emo▯ons ◦ Emo▯ons reflect how well the person is doing in pursuing incen▯ves & avoiding threats 3 PSY 311 Emotion Self Esteem • Maintenance does not occur all the ▯me • When ppl are in good moods, they are less likely to engage in self-esteem enhancing behaviors • As long as the self-image is above a threshold of posi▯vity, there is not effort to prop up self-esteem (pu▯ng down others, winning a sports game, ge▯ng a friend a gi▯, etc.) • Self-esteem enhancing behaviors only occur when affect is nega▯ve, not posi▯ve Set Point as a "Natural Rate" • Refers to the rate of progress the person shows when they are "coas▯ng" ◦ Coas▯ng - Moving toward goals & moving away from threats effec▯vely • Results from a high level of ac▯vity in BAS or a low level of ac▯vity in BIS • When no major events are increasing posi▯ve or nega▯ve affect substan▯ally • Most ppl show a level of posi▯ve affect when coas▯ng • Ppl whose natural rate is high are more ac▯ve & exert a greater effort compared to their low velocity counterparts 4


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