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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
About and History of Psychology 01/14/2016 ▯ What is psychology? Science of behavior and mental processes Concerned with everything a person does, thinks and feels This includes: o Overt actions o Mental functions o Emotional functions o Physiological functions ▯ Psychologist is a person who holds a BA, MA and Ph.D. Has an additional year or 2 of training in a specialized area of research Research is the most important thing a psychologist does (regardless of specialization) Research answers our questions Research keeps the science of psychology alive ▯ Who else treats psychological disorders? Psychiatrists o Have a MD with a 2 year internship is psychiatry o Patients usually have both physical and mental problems o Can an often write prescriptions o Have little human training in emotional disturbances or human behavior Psychoanalysts o Specialized psychiatrists o Practice psychoanalysis (study of unconscious motives and dreams) o 4 years in college, 4 years in med school, 4 years studying psychoanalysis All three professionals often work side by side in hospitals and mental health settings o i.e. generally help one another ▯ When people seek therapy they tend to think of going to a psychiatrist first However, the practitioner of choices should be a licensed psychologist ▯ Why? A psychologist who has extensive training in the treatment and research of mental problems Psychologists do not always take the drug oriented, bio-medical view regarding the treatment of disorder. o Drugs often produce further problems like side effects and addictions. ▯ Psychologists working with people that have mental disturbances are Clinical Psychologists ▯ ▯ Percentage breakdown of specialization areas for Ph.D level psychologists 46% clinical 17% counseling, community or school psychs 10% developmental, personality & social psychs 8% educational psychs 8% industrial/organizational psychs 6% physiological, neurological and neuropsychs 5% stats and methodological ▯ All specialization areas can be broken down in to 2 major subareas Human Services Field Clinical Psychologists o Provide psychological services to the public o Deal with patients with psychological disturbances usually in a private practice or hospital setting Interview patients Administer diagnostic tests Treat patients’ problems with current therapies o Patient problems include: Anxiety Depression Compulsions Schizophrenia o Counseling psychologists o Less severe problems Marriage difficulty Job-choice problems Child rearing problems o Work primarily in industry, hospital, mental health & university settings o Both clinical and counseling psychologists are available free at lucina 285-1736 o Community Psychologists Focus on community mental health Help community and its institutions adjust to problems Drug use and prevention HIV/STF testing Domestic violence sage houses and hotlines Often consult with city/state officials to implement programs o School Psychologists Work exclusively within the education settings (Preschool – HS) Their duties vary: Administering IG and vocational tests Interpret test scores Plan interventions Aid teachers with classroom problems Medicate parent/student/teacher conflicts Consult on teaching/learning processes Experimental Field o Teach and conduct research o These psychologists conduct the major bulk of the research in psychology and also teach o Physiological Psychologists Includes biological and neuropsychologists Study how physiology affects our behavior brain functions brain chem and neurotransmitters hormonal output effects of narcotics o Developmental Psychologists Study behavioral, mental, and psychological changes that occur over the span of the lifetime (concentrate largely on child development) o Social Psychologists Study how individuals interact within their social environment Topics of study: Aggression Helping behavior Persuasion Romantic Attraction o Educational Psychologists Study processes of teaching and learning E.g. studying effects of watching “Sesame Street” on kids intellectual growth Note: School psychologists use the research provided by educational psychologists o Industrial/Organizational Psychologists Study the psychology of work behavior Focus on topics: Productivity Job satisfaction Employee motivation Absenteeism o General Experimentalists Includes smaller subarea specialists Sensation/perception Social cognition Engineering psychologists Quantitative psychologists Environmental psychologists Forensic or legal psychologists ▯ History of Psychology Psychology has branched out considerable considering the field is only about 130 years old Psychology did not exist until the 1880s Broke off as a combination of: o Medicine o Philosophy o Theology The first psychologists adopted the Structuralism Approach ▯ History of Psychology The first psychologist adopted the Structuralist Approach These psychologists wanted to describe the structure of the mind of psyche They wanted to document “contents of consciousness” Wilhelm Wundt is most strongly associated with this movement o He is considered father of psychology o He started the first psychological lab in 1879 The structuralists method of research was called: o Introspection (self-examination) Subjects would simply describe what they were thinking and feeling under certain conditions This focus quickly faded Next approach to evolve…. ▯ ▯ The Functional Approach This approach stressed not what was happening in conscious thought but rather how the brain worked and functioned A lot of animal research was conducted to determine the functions of different parts of the brain William James led this movement ▯ ▯ Approx 1910 Functionalism was thriving in the US while Gestalt Psychology (new movement) popped up in Europe Gestalt Psychologists stressed the study of the total experience of the individual The first individual to develop a theory of mental instability was.. Sigmund Freud o An M.D. living in Vienna, Austria o Developed the techniques of free association and dream interpretation to treat “hysteria” patients Called his new treatment psychoanalysis o Focus was to relieve the unconscious of built-up pressures ▯ ▯ Behaviorism Head of behaviorist movement was John B. Watson o Professor at Johns Hopkins U Behaviorists believed the psychologists shouldn’t even try to study the mind They argued that we should study only what we can see and observe, i.e. behavior Modern Day Psychology is rooted in the principles of behaviorism That is, one of our major goals today is to study measurable behavior and attitudes ▯ ▯ How do we go about study psychology? Theories: a formal set of interrelated propositions concerning a phenomenon A theory is basically an explanation of why a relationship exists o Key word: WHY If we know why a relationship exists, we can then predict when it will happen again Prediction makes theory a very powerful concept We all construct theories of behavior every day Were all psychological theorists ▯ ▯ Hypotheses: testable predictions ▯ ▯ What makes a good theory: Logical Parsimonious (as simple as possible) Stimulate new research Easily lead to new hypotheses Be testable ▯ Start with Facts -> Theories -> Hypotheses -> Facts (data) ▯ ▯ Methods of Research (ways we test our theories) Controlled lab experiment o Prediction: Nicotine reduces activity level\ 30 rats, split into 3 groups of 10 Group 1: inject saline Group 2: Inject 6mg of nicotine Group 3: Inject 12mg of nicotine o Nicotine is the variable we manipulate (change) called the Independent Variable After the injections o Place each rat in an activity wheel for 1 hour o It records the number of wheel revolutions in either direction o The total number of rotations after 1 hour is our measure of activity or the dependent variable o So we manipulate the Independent (nicotine) to see if it affects the Dependent (wheel rotations) o Important** All other variables (other than the IV) are the same for every rat Everything is said to be controlled for In this way we can make “cause and effect” statements If the wheel rotations differ across groups then the nicotine must have cause the differences Why? Because everything else was the same Conclusion: Nicotine reduces activity levels in rats Field Experiment o Similar to the lab experiment but taken into the field of real world o Hypothesis of an actual study: Personal space invasion through staring causes anxiety o Method: Man on a bike rides up to an intersection, picks out a car stopped at the light and….. He either stares at the driver or looks down at the pavement Is this IV or DV? The measurement of anxiety was how fast the car (in seconds) went through the intersection when the light turned green (used stop watch) This is the DV After calculations: Space invasion through staring does indeed cause anxiety o Note with field experiment: Much less control than with the lab experiment Results relate better to the real world than the results of the lab experiment Quasi-Experiment o Here, the manipulation is not controlled by the scientist. Correlation or Field Study o Not experiment o No manipulation of variables o We only measure variables o Measure 2 variables on each person and determine if the variables are related ▯ Statistics Correlation o Labeled r o A measure of the degree of linear association between 2 variables o Range -1 – 0 - +1 o The closer the r is to either +1 or -1 the strong the relationship When we have a linear relationship between two variables, we can usually predict someone’s score on one variable from knowledge of their score on the other variable Two general types of stats: o Descriptive Stats: describe and reduce data o Inferential Stats: tests we perform on descriptive stats (learn more in higher level classes) ▯ Stats. Continued. ▯ ▯ Descriptive Statistics help us describe the shape of this very distribution Two types of descriptive measures o Measures of central tendency: Mean (average), median(score at which 50% of scores fall below or above), mode (most frequently occurring score) o Measures of variability Measures of dispersion or spread Standard Deviation (S) = The average score deviation from the mean Variance (S2) = Standard deviation squared Used for many inferential stats ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Neuropsychology ▯ Research on the brain is usually conducted in 1 of 8 ways: Study the brains of people who died of brain tumors and other brain abnormalities o We associate the types of brain damage with the loss of specific abilities (vision, hearing, etc.) Brains and parts of brains are destroyed and behavioral effects are recorded (animals)’ Electrically or chemically stimulate parts of brain to see effects Use “single cell” recording o Hood electrodes to single neurons and see when they fire Measures EEG waves (electroencephalogram waves) o A recording of the electrical activity of the cortex only CT Scans (computerized axial tomography) o Basically are 3D X-Rays. PET Scans (positron emission tomography) o Detects brain activity through heat sensing MRI Scans (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) o Detects brain structures by sending radio waves through a strong magnetic field ▯ Neuropsychology Basic unit of the nervous system is the neuron. o Found throughout the body o Come in all shapes, sizes, and lengths Neurons cluster together to form a chain from neuron to neuron with the dendrites of one touching or nearly touching the axon terminals of the next neuron The space between each neuron is the synapse The chain of neurons carry information through electrical charges within the neurons o When a neuron charges electrically it is said to fire. o Once a neuron fires, it sends info to the next neuron in an all of none fashion Called Action Potential (neurons work more like guns than water hoses) o When neurons fire it shoots neurotransmitters across the synapse and to the next neuron Neurotransmitters – chemicals produced by the brain that carry the information from one neuron to the next Drugs like meth and heroin work by upsetting the delicate balance of the neurotransmitters in the brain ▯ ▯ The Human Nervous System Two parts: o Central Nervous System Brain Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Brain and spinal cord send and receive signals from the body of two different types: o Sensory Signals Receptor site > spinal cord > brain (sent by sensory neurons) o Motor Signals Brain > Spinal cord > receptor site (sent by motor neurons) The Human Brain The brain consists of both a right and left hemisphere The hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of neurons called the corpus callosum Both hemispheres are covered by a wrinkly exterior called the cortex o Cortex is responsible for our human higher-level thinking and intelligence Because humans have more wrinkles in their cortexes than all lower level animals, we have more raw cortex than other species The cortex is covered by skull (1/4/ inch thick) ▯ Important parts of the brain and their functions: Hindbrain: o Medulla (heart rate and breathing) o Reticular Formation (arousal, waking, excretion) o Pons (sleeping, dreaming) o Cerebellum (coordination and balance) Forebrain: o Diencephalon Thalamus (relay center) Hypothalamus (motivation, emotion, eating and pleasure) o Telencephalon Basal Ganglia (movement/posture) Corpus Callosum (hemisphere relay) Cortex (complex thinking, coordination of sense) One of the best understood groups of structures is known as the limbic system o Plays major role in Epilepsy Amnesia Drug addiction Obesity Bulimia and Anorexia Emotional Behavior Sexual Pleasure Olds and Milner (1960s) found that electrical stimulation of the limbic system (hypothalamus) in rats produced extremely pleasurable states. In fact, they called the hypothalamus the pleasure center of the brain Since Olds and Milner’s early work we know now that…. o The amygdala controls our emotions o The hippocampus aids in the storage of new memories throughout the brain Memories are not “localized” (not stored in one part of the brain) ▯ Left and Right Brain Differences Evidence for left/right brain differences comes primarily from studying the behavior of people who have experienced trauma/disease to either the left or right side of their brains. Left hemispheric damage is associated with: o Aphasia – disorder in the production of spoken or written language o Apraxia – inability to carry out skilled movement in the absence of spinal cord damage. o Agnosia – inability to recognize familiar objects by sight, touch, or sound. o Left/Right Body Confusion o Verbal Memory Deficits o Mood Disorders (depression) o Right-side weakness or paralysis o Dyslexia – impairment of reading ability (might see dog as god) ▯ Left and Right Brain Differences ▯ Right Hemispheric damage is associated with o Left neglect syndrome o Eye-hand coordination problems o Difficulty in dressing (buttoning, pants) o Impaired sense of direction o Altered humor o Left-side weakness or paralysis ▯ Developmental Psychology: concern with the study of physical, mental, social changes that occur throughout the cycle of life. Most research has centered on the development of children Three Major focuses of this developmental psychology research: What factors affect a child’s emotional development? What factors affect a child’s cognitive or intellectual development? What factors affect a child’s social development? ▯ ▯ Emotional Development Look at research today demonstrating how touch and cuddling affect the emotional development of children Series of very early studies conducted by Dr. Harry Harlow of U of Wis. (using Rhesus monkeys) Harlow’s studies show that our social environment is very critical to our eventual ability to attach to others later in life. In other words, touch deprivation is extremely harmful! The idea is that we need caring adults to develop emotional stability. It builds out sense of security and independence and confidence So, god parenting is far more than feeding, changing, and protecting a child o It must include touching cuddling and caressing o Note – these behaviors are very natural tendencies for adults. Importantly, Harlow’s early research has led directly to the recent practice of holding babies in hospital ICU’s In most hospitals, babies are cuddled 20-30mins every 6hrs Child psychologist Tiffany Field has show that: o Premature infants massaged 15mins 3x a day gained weight 47% faster than preemies not touched. o In addition, massaged infants were: o More interactive, alert when awake o Slept deeper and longer when asleep ▯ Cognitive or Intellectual Development Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Proposed that cognitive development in children occurs o Sensorimotor (birth to 2)- object permanence, stranger anxiety o Preoperational (2-6)- pretend play, egocentrism, language dev. o Concrete Operational (7-11) – conservation, math transformations o Formal Operational (12- adulthood) – abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning ▯ ▯ Sensorimotor Stage: At about age 2 children learn that when an object is covered, it still remains in existence. (object permanence) – peek-a-boo ▯ ▯ Preoperational ▯ ▯ Concrete Operational: ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Social Development: Takes place in a wider variety of settings than even before. Some children experience a lot of social interaction while others experience very little. A child’s degree of interaction wither their parent’s and family strongly affects their social development. o At least until the child enters school First social experience begins at birth when we bond with parents. o First social event for the child (a lot of attention and cuddling) o Before age 1 Child is extremely demanding o Baby does not distinguish their needs/desires from those of the rest of the world o Luckily most time is spent sleeping (18-20 hours a day) o At 1 year.. Kids start viewing themselves as being “separate” from parents Stranger anxiety develops Clear lack of patience Kids want things immediately Actually very intelligent, but lack language skills to make needs known Very frustrating to everyone o At 2 years.. Children understand they are truly separate beings “no” period – say no to everything- independence play alone or side-by-side (called “parallel play”) no to very little social interaction Better at controlling emotions and behavior o At ages 3-5… Children are gradually forced to interact with others to satisfy their needs o By age 5.. Most children are interacting with others in an acceptable and responsible manner ▯ **IMPORTANT** The process of achieving social maturity involves the breakdown of egocentrism The child has to ultimately understand that he or she lives in a “social” world and that SHARING with others is essential ▯ ▯ One factor found to enhance the breakdown of egocentrism: Type of toys kids play with: o One study looked at the social skills of children who played primarily with either Isolate toys (hand held video games) Or Social toys (checkers/chess/board games) o Results? Kids exposed to more social toys tend to prefer at a much younger age, to play with other kids! They also tend to be much more socially skilled as adults So, sports involvement in “team” sports is good. Thus, it appears that we learn out social skills through out experiences with others. Father’s Role in Child- Rearing o Assumed for long time that fathers were non-essential to a child’s development. o Times have changed. o Recent evidence shows that fathers are actually Very affectionate Responsive Effective caretakers o Most fathers involvement begins as early as the bonding process right after birth o Unfortunately, it is still true that dads spend less time with kids than moms o However, the quality and the intensity of their attention is as high as the mothers! o Research shows that: Dad – playmate (tend to tease) Mom – Caretaker (injuries) Children engage in different activities with each parent Wresting and rough/tumble play common with fathers Singing and playing games common with mothers Note: The quality of fathering is strongly related to the quality of the father/mother relationship A good mother/father relationships (where there is mutual respect, good communication, and abundant affection) is strongly associated with high quality fathering. In sum, research today is showing clearly that a father’s role in child development is critical. Father absence can produce some very negative consequences. Day Care Centers o In 2011, 2/3s of all preschool children were in day care centers (23 million kids) o Surveys have shown that, despite these numbers, most parents are reluctant to use non-parental day care. o Research regarding day care has focused on three major questions o Does day care affect child’s relationship with his or her parents? o Data indicate that day care does not, in any way, reduce a child’s emotional attachment to his or her parents o Does day care affect child’s intelligence level? o The key to good intellectual growth is having… A varied and stimulating environment So does day care generally provide enough variation and stimulation? It depends on whether or not the day care providers are of “high quality” When they are of high quality, centers usually provide ample stimulation and day care children do well! Does day care affect the social development of children? Socially, kids raised in high- quality day care centers are remarkably similar to kids raised exclusively at home There is a little more aggression among daycare- raised children. ▯ **Important** All of these research conclusions assume that home-raised children are compared to children raised in high quality day care centers. Criterion for high-quality day care o Staff should be both educated and experienced Ask for resumes o There should be a low child to staff ratio No more that 6:1 is good 3:1 for kids under 2 o There should be a low turnover rate among the staff It is very important that you check these things out! If you should suspect problems of any kind, call: o 1-800-4-A-Child ▯ In sum, under optimal conditions the psychological profiles of day-care raised children are very similar to the profiles of home raised children. ▯ Closing notes on day care research Research studies on the effects of day care are often very difficult to conduct o Such research is very time consuming o High quality day care centers are rare and thus difficult to find o Parent’s are often reluctant to let their children participate in such research High quality day care must be made more affordable o It is the poor who need it, but can’t afford it. o Approximate average annual cost of day care per child in the Midwest is $8,000 No national policy/law that forces poor day care centers to improve their services. o In 2011 23 million children were in day care o 15 million of these children attended unlicensed centers (no standards for health, safety or education)
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