MUS121 Intro to Listening Chapter 3 Notes
MUS121 Intro to Listening Chapter 3 Notes Mus121
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Heller on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Benjamin Crofut in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Into to listening in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 3- Musical Instruments and Ensembles Voices and Vocal Ensembles The voice is our most fundamental musical instrument Pitch Range: Female (or boys with unchanged voices) Soprano, mezzo soprano, alto ( also called contralto) Male Tenor, baritone, bass A mixed choir- a vocal ensemble consisting of several voice parts with four or five or more singers in each section Stringed Instruments Played by plucking, striking, or bowing the strings Strings made out of silk, plastic, nylon, metal, or metal wound around nylon center Plucked String Instruments Includes: lute, psaltery, hammered dulcimer, harp Small enough to be held in the lap of an individual player Sounded at a very soft dynamic level Consorts- a small group of renaissance instruments Ex. Recorder Most popular today- Guitar- the acoustic guitar has a figure 8-shaped hollow body and a fingerboard Harp- strings are stretched across a triangular frame with a hollow side to resonate the sound Often used as part of an orchestra Bowed String Instruments Normally played by drawing a bow across the string or strings Three families of bowed string instruments The voil family- with fat bodies, flat backs, and fingerboards The rebec family- bowl-shaped body with a fingerboard The violin family – thinner body with a shaped back and a finger board Most commonly used today Most commonly used today: Voiln- the neck is held with the left hand, and the tail rests beneath the player’s chin Viola- held in the same way as the violin, but it is larger and produces a lower and somewhat more somber tone quality Cello- much larger and deeper sounding than the violin or voila, played upright with the body held between the player’s knees Double bass (string bass)- the largest and lowest- pitched member of the family because of its size the player sits on a stool or stands upright Can be played using a pizzicato- a performance technique in which string instruments are plucked with fingers instead of bowed Different bowing techniques lead to different musical affects Legato- smooth and connected up-and-down stroke of the bow Staccato- short detached stokes of the bow Tremolo- fast, repeated notes played by a very rapid strokes of the bow the tone quality of each instruments can be made richer or warm by the use of vibrato- rapid vibration of the left hand while pressing the string against the fingerboard a subdued, velvety tone is produced by the use of a mute- a device clamped onto the bridge (across which the strings are stretched) to soften the sound Woodwinds Produce sound when a player blows air through the tube like body of the instrument Player opens or closes small holes along the side of the instrument with fingers or pads activated by a key mechanism Create a continuous note called drone- a long-held note or notes over or under which other music is played Woodwinds used in modern orchestras: Piccolo- a small, high- pitched flute Flute- side blown and made out of metal, although early flutes were made from wood Oboe- played with a double reed of two pieces of thin cane that vibrate against the player’s lips Clarinet- end blown with a single reed on the mouthpiece English horn- a lower-pitched version of the oboe Bassoon- also a double- reed instrument, but bigger and lower pitched than the oboe or English horn Bass clarinet- a larger and lower-pitched clarinet Contrabassoon- a larger and lower-pitched bassoon Saxophone- a woodwind instrument that uses a mouthpiece with a single reed and is made of brass Brasses Identified by their cup mouthpiece, against which the player buzzes their lips They have valves- a set of that open or close parts of the instrument’s tubing allowing for easy changes from note to note Commonly used today basses include: Trumpet- the modern trumpet uses valves to move from note to note French horn- the modern horn also uses valves to change notes Trombone- a slide is used to change notes by adjusting the length of tubing Tuba- a very left and low- pitched instrument that uses valves to change notes Percussion Instruments Produce sound when struck, shaken, or scarped Two categories of percussion instruments definite pitch and indefinite pitch Instrument of Definite Pitch: Timpani- (kettledrums) usually found in sets of two to five drums of varying sizes Modern timpani are tuned by pedals that are easier to adjust than were screws Glockenspiel- two rows of steel bars, a crisp bell-like sound is produced by striking the bars with mallets Celesta- a glockenspiel with a keyboard that makes it look something like a small upright piano Xylophone- made of tuned wooden bars that produce a hallow sound when struck by mallets Marimba- a xylophone with resonators under each bar of the instrument Chimes- a set of tuned metal tubes suspended vertically in a frame and played with one or two mallets and their sound resembles church bells Vibraphone- a set of metal bars arranged similar to a piano keyboard, it uses an electrical mechanism to product the instruments vibrato effect More used in jazz, than orchestras Instruments of Indefinite Pitch: ( include just about anything that can be struck, scraped, or manipulated in to produce sound) Brass drum- a large, deep sounding drum with two heads Side (snare) drum- a drum that has two heads, the top head is it with sticks, the bottom head is rigged with metal wires that vibrate against it when the top head is struck Tambourine- a circular wooden frame, usually with a single head, and teal discs that jingle when the instrument is shaken or stuck Triangle- a triangle made of a bent medal rod, struck with a metal beater Cymbals- metal discs that ring when they are hit against one another Gong- (tam-tam) usually a large suspended metal disc that is struck with a padded mallet Tom-toms- cylindrical drums with two heads but no snares, played with sticks, mallets, and brushes for different effects Bongos- a pair of attached small drums, each with one head play with the hands Congas- a tall drum with a single head played with the hands Keyboard Instruments Played with the hands and can produce many notes at one time Has strings that are plucked, stuck, or even bowed when the player pushes the keys Belong to Clavier family Harpsichord and the virginal Or has pipes through which winder blew when the payer opened them by pushing the keys Fall into the general category of organs Most common keyboard instruments today: Piano- hammers hit the strings when the keyboard is played, hammer mechanism allows to vary dynamic level or music Fortepiano, pianoforte Organ- originally wind instruments played with a keyboard, today they often produce their sound electronically Electronic Instruments fall into two categories instruments that produce acoustic sounds that are modified electronically guitars, keyboards, and woodwinds instruments that generate sounds using electronics used to modify tone quality and make them louder tone altered by pushing the sound through an amplifier that adds qualities such as vibrato and fuzztone invention of synthesizer- an electronic instruments that can duplicate almost any sound and can be used to create entirely new sound, changed music to electric recorded rather than played live Instrument Ensembles Chamber music- music written for a small group of instruments, with one player to a part Ex. String quartet Orchestra- a group of instruments from different families can vary in size and particular instrumentation Wind ensembles- an orchestral type of concert band made up primarily of woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments Also called symphonic band or concert band Conductor- a person who directs a musical ensemble and who is responsible for all aspects of the performance of the ensembles
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