Reading: Hock - Reading 4
Reading: Hock - Reading 4 APSY.UE.0002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Reading: Hock 4 - Watch Out For The Visual Cliﬀ! S.B was blind until the age of 52, when he got a surgery done to restore his vision (corneal transplant) he tried to jump out of a 4 story window He was curious as to what was moving on the ground below and did not have depth perception. S.B. was unable to tell that he was 4 stories up - hospital staﬀ stopped him Infants and toddlers constantly need protection from falling oﬀ things, when they begin to develop muscular coordination and gain more experience with high places…they gain depth perception Eleanor Gibson and Rickard Walk wanted to study the visual ability of depth perception scientiﬁcally in the laboratory. developed the Visual Cliﬀ Theoretical Propositions To ﬁnd out at what point in the early developmental process animals or people are able to perceive depth = put them on the edge of a cliﬀ and see if they are able to avoid falling oﬀ Visual Cliﬀ presents the participants with what appears to be a drop-oﬀ (no drop-oﬀ actually exists) IMPORTANT: the fact that human or animal infants can be placed on the visual cliﬀ to see if they are able to perceive the drop-oﬀ and avoid it. If unable to do so - no danger Gibson and Walk = Nativist position depth perception and the avoidance of a drop oﬀ appear automatically as part of our original biological equipment and are not, therefore, products of experience Opposing view = empiricits depth perception is learned Visual Cliﬀ allows them to ask: At what stage in development can a person or animal respond eﬀectively to the stimuli of depth and height? Do these responses appear at diﬀerent times with animals of diﬀerent species and habitats? Are these responses preprogrammed at birth or do they develop as a result of experience and learning? Method Visual Cliﬀ table 4ft high Top made from a piece of thick, clear glass Directly under half of the glass on the table (the shallow side) is a solid surface with a red-andwhite checkered pattern. Under the other half is the same pattern, but it is down at the level of the ﬂoor underneath the table (deep side) At end of the shallow side - a sudden drop oﬀ to the ﬂoor appears (fake, glass extends over) 36 infants (6 - 14 months) & mothers infant placed on the shallow side, mother calls he/she over while standing in front of the “drop" Infant animals also tested in the same manner ( chicks, turtles, rats, lambs, baby goats, pigs, kittens) Results and Discussion When Infants placed on the “cliﬀ” side and beckoned from the shallow side 9 infants refused to move infant stubbornness? Other 27 infants crawled without hesitation 3 infants crept with great hesitation When infants placed on shallow side and beckoned from “cliﬀ” side most crawled away form their mothers on shallow side or cried in frustration at being unable to reach their mothers without moving over the “cliﬀ” able to perceive the depth of the”cliﬀ” Does not prove humans are born with depth perception - all children had at least 6 months of experience in learning depth perception through trial and error cannot be tested prior to 6 months- inadequate locomotor abilities The ability of the various animals to perceive depth developed in relation to when the species needed such a skill for survival Baby chickens ( need to scratch for own food soon after birth): never made mistake of walking over “cliﬀ" Kids & Lambs (able to stand and walk soon after birth): never made mistake of walking over “cliﬀ”. Indicated that the visual sense was in complete control and that the animals’ ability to eel the solidity of the glass on the deep side had no eﬀect on the response Rats: showed no signiﬁcant preference for the shallow side of the table rats do not rely on vision - primarily nocturnal - scavengers Use their whiskers to insure the ground is solid and safe to walk on Kittens: Excellent depth perception as soon as they were able to move on their own, about 4 weeks Turtles: 76% crawled oﬀ the shallow side, 24% went “over the edge”. Choosing to go oﬀ the deep side does not suggest a lack of depth perception (necessarily)…They were aqueous turtles and has less (or no) reason to fear a fall Findings consistent with evolutionary theory all species of animals, if are to survive need to develop the ability to perceive depth by the time they achieve independent movement Gibson & Walk: human infants’ perception of the depth had matured sooner than had their skill in movement Criticism and Subsequent Research In a recent study: researchers tested the visual cliﬀ on 2-5month old infants babies showed a decreased heart rate = equivalent to interest, not fear suggests no depth perception Source research: put 1 year old infants on visual cliﬀ Visual Cliﬀ was neither shallow nor deep - about 30in Mother on the “cliﬀ” side with either a face of fear or of happiness First, they would always check out the cliﬀ Fear: babies would refuse to cross Happiness: check out the cliﬀ again and then would cross drop oﬀ made ﬂat = babies cross no problem Social Referencing: nonverbal communication used by infants in determining their behavior Recent Applications Study by Berger and Adolph using visual cliﬀ tested toddlers @ 16months Cross bridge of various widths Larger the width = more likely to cross Narrow width + hand rails = toddlers more likely to cross challenge tradiditionsl conceptualizations of tools: babies used the handrails as a means for augmenting balance and for carrying out an otherwise impossible goal-directed task a visual drop may be used in helping those with acrophobia (an irrational fear of heights)
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