BU COM JO357: 1/21-2/9
BU COM JO357: 1/21-2/9 COM JO357
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqui Busick on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM JO357 at Boston University taught by William Mckeen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History and Principles of Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at Boston University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
JO375: History and Principles of Journalism Tu/Thu 1112:30 Prof. McKeen ~dates don’t matter as much as what happened~ Part 1: ● The Functions of Journalism ○ to provide an account of life ○ to provide a forum for public opinion ○ to entertain ○ to be anadversary ● The Beginnings of Muckraking (beginning of the 20th century): ○ “The job of the newspaper is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.” Finley Peter Dunne ○ Pres. Theodore Roosevelt coined the term “muckrakers” he was a friend and inspiration to them ○ 19th century, The Age of Reform (journalism led the way): ■ what we eat, how we vote ■ The Ladies’ Home Journal ● editor Edward Bok launched an advertising crusade he thought certain products were bad for health and would no longer take ads from them (Patent medicines) ● the reasons we have ingredients lists on everything now is because of the muckrakers ● found out the primary ingredients in patent medicines were cocain, morpheme, and alcohol and there was no regulations ■ Jane Addams ○ Key players: ■ Jacob Riis: born in Denmark and came to US when very young, homeless and unemployed, began in journalism at The NY Tribune and the NY Sun) ● when arrived sleeping in police stations open to homeless: a place of robbery, a terrible way to live and contemplated suicide ● retired by 1900, but he was an inspiration for the Muckrakers ● Theodore Roosevelt was reading what he was writing, met him and they became friends. inspired by Riis to go into public life (TR became police commissioner of NY) ○ they dressed up as homeless people and went around to see if any police officers were misbehaving ● at this time all politicians were corruptTR was a new type ● Photography was new (only 40 yrs old): Riis didn’t think he was a good enough writer–no one was responding to his articles–so he started taking photos, like about the water supply in NY ○ just the time that we had figured out how to print photos in newspapers ● Mulberry Bend: his world, where he focused, “the foul core of New York slums” ○ photos of homeless loding, etc. ○ wanted to document life on the streets ● one of the first people to take photos inside ● Child labor (regulations came about because of muckrakers) ○ including newspaper carrier boys ● Where the children play ○ no breathing or living space in the city ○ became commissioner of parks for NYC after retiring from journalism ● Books: How the Other Half Lives..etc. (incl. photos) ● (these things he was documenting are never finished) 1/26/15 America in the 1890’s ● so much anger directed at the 1% wealthy ● a nation “looted on a scale unrivaled in the history of human greed” ● the Robber Barons ○ JP Morgan ○ Jay Gould ○ William Vanderbilt ○ Philip Armour ○ Andrew Carnegie ○ E.H. Hairman ○ John D. Rockefeller ● publisher of the leading muckraking magazine, McClure’s Magazine: S.S. McClure ○ magazines (newspapers were just as corrupt as everything else) ○ started as just another generalinterest magazine ○ Josiah Flynt/Josiah Frank Willard ( bum who showed up at McClure’s office) introduced millions of readers to the world of organized crime ■ came from a prosperous family in Chicago ■ never liked normal life ■ wanted to write about his travels, traveled around Europe as a hobo, had connections in both worlds “Tramping with Tramps” series put the magazine on the map ■ drug addict, died very young ○ “True Stories from the Under World” and “The World Graft” about elected officials corruption by Josiah Flynt ■ brought the language of crime into popular usage: ex) “mugged grafter” typical criminal vs “unmugged grafter” someone who’s just as corrupt but not been caught ○ Flynt made McClure’s the primary venue for muckraking ● Muckraking’s Big 3 ○ Lincoln Steffens ■ came from big wealth, schooling in Europe, Dad left him to make his way in NYC after many years of schooling, went into journalism ■ New York Evening Post ■ under the influence of Jacob Riis ■ Editor at the Commercial Advertiser, a crusade for justice ■ becomes managing editor at McClure’s right around the time Flynt starts writing ● left to travel and learn how to be a better editor ● Chicago, St. Paul: Warehouser what did it cost to build a fortune?, St. Louis district attorney story “Tweed Days in St. Louis” ■ became the primary reporter/editor ■ muckraking became a holy crusade to awaken the conscience of the American public ■ “American contempt of law” ■ Pittsburg: “political corruption is a process” ...all collected in “Shame of the Cities” book ● corruption came from the top, not the bottom ● did not accompany the immigrant population ○ Ida Tarbell ■ a colleague of Steffans’ at McClure’s ■ grew up in wealth also, father one of the oil people who had been run out of business by Rockefeller ■ so dedicated to her work that she risked being an outcast, wanted to stay single and be a successful writer ■ SS McClure found her when she was in Paris, before he had the magazine ■ in McClure’s she made her name with her “quickie” biographies ■ long term project “The Story of Rockefeller” and “History of the Standard Oil Company” and how he made his fortune ● had weekly meetings with VP ● the most thoroughly researched work in the muckraking era ■ laws to break up monopolies after muckraking period ○ Samuel Hopkins Adams ■ did other stuff besides journalism too ■ “Guardians of The Public Health” about patent medicines ○ Ray Standard Baker ■ “J Peirpont Morgan” 1/28/16 The muck stops here... ● Jacob Riis: first bookend of Muckraking era (premuckraker) ● Josiah Flynt, Steffens, Tarbell: in middle ● Upton Sinclair ○ child of prosperity in Baltimore ○ writing prodigy publishing in national magazines by 16 ○ published more than 60 novels in his lifetime ■ (the Gnome mobile disney movie) ○ he was the most radical, but as a writer of fiction ■ sacrificed for this art once he went for it living very poorly ○ decided to write a book about wage slavery that would be so powerful that people who read it would convert to socialism “The Jungle” ■ needed to do some reporting: needed a location so picked Armor meatpacking plant and a protagonist so picked immigrant ■ calls Chicago “Packingtown” ■ dressed up like a worker in the plant and walked around and talked to people for 3 months ■ stories so graphic editor wouldn’t take it at first. he refused to alter the contents of the book ● Jack London threatened his own publisher to publish it ■ it became a huge bestseller ■ “I aimed for the public’s heart and by accident I hit it in the stomach.” ■ Teddy Roosevelt started reading “The Jungle”, puked, and invited Sinclair to the White House ● ate that meat in the SpanishAmerican War: in this war, more americans died from eating their rations, than being shot in battle ○ ran for governor of California in the 30s, very socialist ○ he also came up with the concept for Social Security ○ “The Brass Check” really the first book of media criticism ● the major muckraking magazines included: McClure’s, The Ladie’s Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, Everybody’s, Hampton’s, and Collier’s (McClure’s created almost a genre) ● term “Muckraker” brought about by: David Graham Phillips (John Graham) ○ novelist and journalist (investigative about NYC) and at the end of each article would address the attorney general of new york ○ “The Treason of the Senate” every month Phillips would write an article about a dif. senator (191213) history has shown that all of Phillips’ major changes were true ○ senate threatened Roosevelt to speak out against “the man with the muckrake” because of a bill he wanted passed by the senate ■ apologized to Phillips ● and the magazines were either bought out or changed their formats ● Muckraking forever changed America ○ Pure Food and Drug Act ○ antimonopoly laws ○ legislation about municipal governance during Wilson’s first term ○ laws regulating child labor and education ○ Amendment XVII: election of senators ● interest in muckraking spiked again in the 1970s (loosening of libel laws) ○ Watergate, Pentagon Papers ● “keepers of the flame” in the meantime: writers, who under the guise of fiction spoke truth, and a few photojournalists too (admirable because had to be there) ○ John Steinbeck: “Grapes of Wrath” and reporting of these experiences before it ○ Ralph Ellison “Invisible Man” about the truth of what African Americans felt ○ Mary Jane Ward “The Snake Pit” mental illness facility ○ Ken Kesey “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest” ● Lewis Hine: other bookend of Muckraking era (postmuckraker) ○ like Riis, a photojournalist and a social crusader ○ Ellis Island photos, child labor photos, (The Empire State Building photos) ○ The Farm Security Administration (in the vane of Riis and Hine): to document life documentary photographers focused a lot on the poverty and the strife because of the guy running the group of photographer’s interpretation ■ Dorothea Lange ● W. Eugene Smith ○ Life Magazine ○ creating stories built around photos rather than around words ○ a gold standard for photo essays ○ WWII in the pacific ○ felt he had seen too much and stopped taking photos until “a walk to paradise garden” ○ “Minimata” factory dumping mercury based waste into water supply, teamed with his wife wrote it into a book ■ blinded again when factory sent some thugs to beat him up, never recovered ● Jessica Mitford ○ consumer journalism ○ “The American Way of Death” the funeral home industry ○ “Kind and Unusual Punishment” death penalty ○ “Poison Penmanship” The Famous Writers School ○ “The American Way of Birth” ultra sounds ○ “Dinner with Decca” Muckraking Redux: Resurgence of Muckraking around 1970s (Investigative Reporting) ● “at a time when America is in need of heroes, the investigative reporter stands a good chance of filling the bill” ● Drew Pearson: Washington reporter ○ “Washington MerrygoRound” ○ he was a celebrity journalist long before that term became redundant ● Jack Anderson: Pearson’s assistant, keeper of the flame ○ Time magazine cover “supersnoop” ○ first solo project during Korean war (early 50s) ■ Truman and McCarther ○ wasn’t taken as seriously because he had to produce muckraking articles almost every other day ○ Howard Hughes money to pres. campaign ○ Nixon lying about Pakistan/India war support ● Seymour Hersh ○ freelance, pulitzer prize ○ “toughest reporter in America” ○ A former AP reporter, turned to politics in 1968, tried to get back into journalism after that and found everyone thought he was “damaged goods”, so went to freelance ○ William Calley (held responsible)whole story of the My Lai massacre ■ photographer source: Haberle ■ Hersh and neighbor David Obst start their own syndicate Dispatch News Service to publish the story sold story to newspapers in major cities ■ “My Lai 4” “Chain of Command” and more ● Selwyn Raab ○ he’s been a crusading journalist in the manner of Jacob Riis, lower east side poverty, police brutality ○ tenacity ○ story: murders of Janice Wylie and Emily Hoffert and confession by Whetmore (innocent) ■ “Justice in the Back Room” ○ “In Havana with the Mafia”, “Mob Lawyer”, “Five Families” ● Woodward and Bernstein: Watergate for Washington Post ○ Woodward reporting the breakin to the Watergate building ○ Katherine Graham and editor Ben Bradlee (changed a lot of things) ○ “All the President’s Men” about how the story was covered ○ nobody else covered the story 2/4/16 Heroes Schmeroes: When Journalism Wimped Out The Worst of Times: ● 1) The Murder of a Reporter ○ George Polk: CBS broadcast chief middle eastern correspondent at end of 1940s, stationed in Greece ○ wrote opinion piece about Greek ruler during Greek civil war in Harper’s magazine ○ The US was trying to make the world love the Greek communism, because they were opposed to communism, and we hated communism, wanted only favorable stories about Greece ■ reporters that can further foreign policy and help us “achieve our goals” ○ murdered, only press card was missing from his wallet ■ William Donovan, founder of CIA and another investigator, Kellis, on Polk’s case ■ Kellis started asking questions, kicked off case ■ Gregory Stactopolous, a friend of Polk’s, was the guy they decided did it ■ Walter Lippmann and other journalists on committee tagged along with US investigation of the murder, it was blamed on the comunists ● 2) The Press during the Cold War ○ television arrived, and the media became truly mass communication around 1950 ○ first under scrutiny by government for communism: The Hollywood Ten screenwriters ■ The blacklist, “a generation on trial” ■ Dalton Trumbo ■ Ring Lardner, Jr. ○ The HissChamber affair ■ Alger Hiss, state department ■ Richard Nixon led investigation into Hiss ■ Whittaker Chambers, Time magazine senior editor, fervent anticommunist ○ Charlie Chaplin outspoken liberal ■ deported back to England ○ the journalists of the time didn’t really investigate these trials and gov. accusations for their validity, just reported them ○ Senator Joe McCarthy: an artist of press manipulation ■ no one ever followed up on his claims ■ publicized his press conferences, prefacing by having really big new information, would delay, so his stories would end up on the front page, knew how to work deadlines ■ truth about person he accused follow up story would have to be later, it ended up buried ○ Edward R. Murrow CBS “See it Now” broadcast about McCarthy in 1954 effectively ended the senator’s career ■ “A nation of sheep will have a government of wolves.” ○ Hollywood swinging the other way with “How to spot a dirty commie SOB” to protect themselves ○ Micky Spillane novelist too ■ a war going on in the mass media ● 3) The Press and the CIA ○ principal news publications often had ties to the CIA:NYT, Time, CBS ○ contact for CIA agents in new york was the president of CBS ○ foreign correspondents getting tapped by the CIA because they would get invited places ○ Bob Campbell 2/9/16 Free Speech ● John Twynn: executed for something he printed in England ● The London Gazette approved by the gov. ● John Milton: “Areopagitica” (he was high up in society, so not punished) ○ “merchants in a marketplace of ideas” , “if everyone speaks we will have truth” ○ at the time we were being settled ● The idea of free speech took root in America, took a bit longer in Europe ● the idea of mass communication took root in America too ● Colonial Boston printing end of 1600s ● The Present State of New English Affairs a one time publication ● Publick Occurrences, Both Forreign and Domestik (Benjamin Harris in Boston 1690) ○ 3 pages, 4th page said write your own news and pass it on ○ didnt submit it to government beforehand ○ colonial governor was afraid that people would read it, think, and want action ■ told him he couldnt publish it anymore ● was a long time before another newspaper: 14 years until The Bofton NewsLetter ○ but “published by authority” by John Campbell, Office of Postmaster ● the first great american newspaper in 1720s also in Boston: The New England Courant by James Franklin and assisted by little brother Ben ○ established a template that American journalism will be outside of the government ○ made fun of those who thought of themselves as the spiritual and intellectual leaders of Boston ■ incl. Cotton Mather and Increase Mather ○ Bens essays by “Silence DoGood” because James wouldnt let him write his own, but it gave the courant an audience ○ went on until it pissed off the colonial government ○ James went to start paper in Rhode Island ○ Ben moved to Philadelphia and worked at a publishing firm Keimer and Franklin, they started a publication in 1720s, The Pennfylvania Gazette ■ started serializing things ■ Franklin one of the first to try to make ads look different from editorial columns ■ editorial cartoon: Join or Die snake ■ ● John Peter Zenger published The New York Weekly Journal ○ immigrant from Germany ○ the people that wrote the controversial articles did not put their names on it ○ hired by lawyers Lewis Morris and James Alexander who thought bad governor Bill Cosby needed to be exposed, so hired Zenger to start paper ○ Zenger trial: acknowledged the sanctity of truth and empowered the “common man”, jurors were granted decisionmaking powers this made America different from Britain “the germ of freedom” that would grow to revolution later ■ trial (1730s): Zenger gets big time lawyer 80year old Andrew Hamilton: “well then it is to you, gentleman of the jury, that I now make my case” ■ we’re free so he should be able to publish...“it is the cause that may oppose arbitrary power by speaking and writing truth” Hamilton
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