Italy 1200 to 1400
Italy 1200 to 1400 1306-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Laura Gerardo on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1306-001 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Art History II in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
January 25, 2016 Italy 1200 – 1400 (Italian Gothic/ PreRenaissance) I. Baptistery, Pisa Cathedral, Pisa, Italy a. 2 distinct tastes (Pisans felt it was the new Roman empire): Gothic, which included sharp, spiky arches, and Roman, which included round arches and thin columns. i. Height in buildings like Cathedrals was important because it signified greater, more heavenly thoughts. The higher the building = the more heavenly the thoughts of the people. ii. Pont du Gar – structure in France with Roman arches. 1. Arcades line of arches. It can support a channel, or an aqueduct. b. It was finished in 1153 and caused a revival of interest in art in Pisa. c. Nicola Pisano, pulpit of Pisa, Cathedral baptistery, Pisa, Italy. Was built from 1259 – 1260 A.D. Made of marble. i. Had Gothic and Classical elements combined and was used for baptisms, religious celebrations for the initiation of a person in the Church. 1. Located in the interior of the Baptistery. 2. This pulpit was a hexagonal platform where priests would speak to the congregation. They would use a ladder to stand on top of this structure! 3. Gothic characteristics: Columns resting on sculpted lion’s backs. 4. Roman characteristics: rounded arches. However, they were defined by a point separating the arches. This demonstrated the tastes of the locals through the Roman and Gothic styles. ii. Details in the sculpture: 1. Hercules is sculpted into it. 2 . There is virtually no background so this is considered a relief sculpture (which means it is mostly covered with bodies). 3. Nicola Pisano, The Annunciation, Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds, relief panel, Baptistery pulpit, Pisa, Italy, 1259 – 1260. 1. There are 3 different scenes displayed: January 25, 2016 i. The Annunciation: Mary is startled by the Angel Gabriel when he announces she will give birth to the Son of God. She is clutching the fabric over her chest. ii. The Nativity of Jesus: The Virgin Mary gives birth to Jesus. She appears as a Roman matron. iii. Adoration of the Shepherds: A bright star appears and tells the Shepherds a Savior has been born. The Shepherds, in this sculpture, are missing their heads however, due to time weighing down on them! Baby Jesus is tightly swaddled, or tightly wrapped in a cloth. 2. Mary’s face looks Roman and dominates the sculpture. Similar to a Roman marble sculpture of the Roman goddess Juno from the 1 st century A.D. Mary’s facial features and clothing are Roman style. 3. The scene is INCREDIBLY crowded with people! i. This is because Pisans were inspired by the Sarcophagi, or coffins, from 260 – 270 A.D. They, too, were overcrowded and hardly had a background. ***HIERARCHICAL SCALE: Relative importance = relative size. (The more important you are, the bigger you’ll be in the work of art.) Here, in the sculptures on the pulpit of Pisa, we understand the Virgin Mary to be the most important element because she is the largest!*** II. Florence, Italy – the birth of the Italian Renaissance a. Red tile roofs throughout the city. b. Palazzo Vecchio – the old town hall. c. Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, Altarpiece, c. 1280 1290. Tempera paint on wood panel. 11’7” x 7’4”. i. Placement of priests changed after the Lateran Council met. The Priest now had to stand in front of the altar with his back to the people. It added to the mystery of the Catholic church. Since the priest was no longer behind the altar, they decided to put an altarpiece like Cimabue’s. ii. A patron, or a wealthy sponsor, commissioned it. January 25, 2016 iii. Cennino Cennini: craftsman who published Il Libro Dell’Arte. 1. The wooden panel would be sanded until it was smooth enough to paint on. The carpenter would work on this then call in the artist when it was ready to paint. There would also be other men (professionals) doing tasks like grinding powdered mineral pigments, water, and an egg to make the paint so that it would stick to the wooden panel. This was a watered down red clay called Bole. 2. The gold shown here is gold leaf. They would use a process called Gilding, which meant they would press tissuelike golden leaves against the Bole clay and it would actually stick! 3. Punching – a decoration which was basically decorated stamps to make certain impressions. This helped to make the painting glimmer. 1. You can notice the Virgin Mary here doesn’t have a lot of gold on her dress or body, and she looks very thin and small here. 2. The angels look so similar, they are practically clones, 3 . Also, Virgin Hodegetria means “she who points the way” in Greek because she is gesturing to her son, Jesus Christ. 4. Byzantine style: began with Constantine in the eastern Roman Empire (in the city of Constantinople; the Western Roman Empire was Rome!). 1. The Byzantine style was much stiffer and less lively so the painting styles most certainly did change. It had lots of gold, abstract figures, and was not naturalistic. 2. Giotto di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned. i. Mary is no longer pointing at the child. ii. More volume and weight which shows especially with her chest, III. Scrovegni Chapel, Padua a. Scrovegni was a wealthy banker/money lender who was worried he wouldn’t get into heaven, so what did he do? – He had a private chapel built on his land by the artist Giotto di Bondone. January 25, 2016 i. Giotto di Bondone, Interior of the Cappella Scrovegni, view to the apse. Padua, Italy, 1305, Fresco. 1. Had a barrel vaulted ceiling. 2. There were 38 different scenes displayed on the fresco, many dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 3. The 3 levels: st 1 . was the Life of the Virgin 2 . was the Infancy and childhood ministry of Jesus. 3. 3 was the Passion of Christ, a series of events that took place prior to and after Christ’s crucifixion. It caused Christ emotional pain and psychological stress. ii. Giotto di Bondone, Last Judgment, Capella Scrovegni, c. 1305, Fresco. 1. How a fresco is made: 1. Prepare the wall with plaster and smooth it out several times. After about 7 layers, you will paint with pulverized minerals over the plaster while the plaster is still wet so that they will dry together, causing a very durable chemical bond. 2. This work is VERY exhaustive and expensive. 3. For mistakes, you have to chip off the plaster and redo that part of it all over again. 4. Giornata term for the amount of surface an artist completed in one day on a fresco. January 25, 2016
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