Psych 2950, Week 4 Notes
Psych 2950, Week 4 Notes PSYC 2950
Popular in Experimental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marcela Leon on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2950 at University of North Texas taught by Alexander Yu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 4 Ethics Ethical Concerns: 1. How society and science work together 2. Research misconduct 3. Treating participants after their involvement in the study 1. How Society and Science Work Together: First of all, scientific research must be FUNDED in order to make it possible and funding is prioritized usually by need. The Federal Government contributes millions of $ Prevalent diseases such as Cancer or AIDS are funded more often than other diseases Demand guides research 2. Research Misconduct: Research misconduct occurs when the conduction or reporting of research is plagiarized, altered and/or is dishonest. Each stage of the research process requires the researchers to make ethical choices o Ex: reporting ALL data including flawed data Small forms of research misconduct: Not addressing flawed data Not addressing research challenging your own Trying to meet others’ demands to get funding by altering your work To avoid misconduct in research, the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) ask researchers for information on the following: Purpose of study Background and Rationale Group of people targeted (population) Design Rewards or form of payment (incentives) Risks and Benefits Privacy and Confidentiality 3. Treating Participants after their Involvement in a Study: A common ethical dilemma for researchers is finding a balance between risks and benefits for the participants. As a researcher, one must always try to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits for those participating in a study. Example of benefits outweighing risks: Having a participants recount a traumatic event from their past, but offering counseling after the study. Example of risks outweighing benefits (Not ethical): Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 1932- 1972: The US Public Health Service studies the effects of syphilis in black men and did not allow them to seek treatment. Participants were not informed about the purpose of the experiment Participants were given incentives to continue their participation o Such as: meals, medical care (for other diseases, not for syphilis), and transportation Participants were coerced to continue by threatening to take away their incentives Local doctors were told to not treat participants for syphilis This lead to the creation of the Institutional Review Board to prevent a similar experiment to happen again. The IRB sets guidelines and determines if balance is appropriate. Nuremberg Code: o Ethics code established to avoid experiments like those conducted by Nazi doctors during WWII. Ex: Some experiments included injecting their participants with different diseases, torturing twins, and freezing participants to death. o Determines validity in research designs and requires informed consent from participants. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Research Guidelines: 1. Respect for participants and their independence o Given the choice to participate and informed consent o Consent can be passive in which not taking action means yes Ex: Asking a group of potential participants to sign and send a form stating they would not like to take part in the experiment, or else they are agreeing to participate. Benefit to passive consent: gains more underrepresented participants (minorities) 2. Must benefit participants and cause the least harm o Benefits > Harm 3. Fairness (Justice) o Fair incentives and equal to all o Psychology research gains must be accessible and beneficial to everyone 4. Assurance (Trust) between Researcher and Participant o Participants’ information must be protected o Thorough informed consent o Action plan for when there are negative effects o Participants must be normalized after study 5. Loyalty and Scientific Honesty o True results (no research misconduct) o Valid experimental designs APA Standards for Ethical Research: 1. Study must be approved by the IRB o Participants cannot be run without approval 2. Establish thorough informed consent o Consent vs. Assent o Assent- when participant is too young to consent on his/her own 3. Deception o Active deception: lying about some aspects of the experiment and/or leading participant to believe someone else is also participating when in reality that other person is assisting the researcher o Passive deception: not disclosing some information o Participants usually understand that some deception is necessary o Concerns: could cause mistrust and/or cause negative feelings towards psychology 4. “Lifting the curtain” (Debriefing) o Discussing details after participant has completed a study- revealing deceptions and explaining the purpose of the study o Dehoaxing: revealing deceptions o Desentisizing: normalizing- eliminating negative effects the study may have caused 5. Pressure on participants (Coercion) o Incentives or rewards must be equal for all participants o Participants have the right to decline or to leave study at any time o Participants cannot be pressured to stay or participate in a study Ex: A participant decides to leave study after participating for 30 minutes - researcher will still give incentive for at least that half hour. 6. Confidentiality o Includes anonymity o Participants’ information must be limited to just the researcher and his/her team --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Using Animals for Research Purposes o Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee (IACUC) o The mass majority (90 %) of animals used for research are birds and rodents, 5% are primates o Animals also have rights and APA requires certain guidelines to ensure ethical treatment o Welfare: focuses on reducing number of animals used and creating better lab conditions o Animal rights: focuses on the belief that animals should have the same rights as humans
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