New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Educ 314 Ch. 2

by: Stefanie Bowlsby
Stefanie Bowlsby
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

notes for chapter 2
Human grown and learn
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
development, genes, SIU, Carbondale, Education
25 ?




Popular in Human grown and learn

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Bowlsby on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDUC 314 004 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Human grown and learn in Education and Teacher Studies at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

Similar to EDUC 314 004 at SIU

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies


Reviews for Educ 314 Ch. 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/09/16
Chapter 2 Section 1 The Evolutionary Perspective  NATURAL SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR  EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY  Evolutionary Developmental Psychology  Evolutionary psychology Emphasizes the importance of adaptation,  reproduction, and “survival of the fittest” in shaping behavior.  Connecting Evolution and Life­Span Development  Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology  THE COLLABORATIVE GENE Section 2Genetic Foundations of Development  Chromosomes Threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, with one  member of each pair coming from each parent. Chromosomes contain the  genetic substance DNA.  DNA A complex molecule that contains genetic information.  Genes Units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes help cells  to reproduce themselves and help manufacture the proteins that maintain  life.  GENES AND CHROMOSOMES  Mitosis Cellular reproduction in which the cell’s nucleus duplicates itself  with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the  parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes.  Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization  Sources of Variability  Meiosis A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and  sperm (also known as gametes).  Fertilization A stage in reproduction when an egg and a sperm fuse to  create a single cell, called a zygote.  Zygote A single cell formed through fertilization.  GENETIC PRINCIPLES  Dominant­Recessive Genes Principle  Sex­Linked Genes  Genotype A person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material.  Phenotype The way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observed  and measurable characteristics.  Genetic Imprinting  Polygenic Inheritance  CHROMOSOMAL AND GENE­LINKED ABNORMALITIES  Chromosomal Abnormalities  Down syndrome  Down syndrome A chromosomally transmitted form of mental  retardation caused by the presence of an extra copy of  chromosome 21.  Sex­Linked Chromosomal Abnormalities  Klinefelter syndrome A chromosomal disorder in which males  have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY.  Fragile X syndrome A genetic disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks.  Turner syndrome A chromosome disorder in females in which  either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO  instead of XX, or the second X chromosome is partially deleted.  XYY syndrome A chromosomal disorder in which males have an  extra Y chromosome.  Gene­Linked Abnormalities  Phenylketonuria (PKU) A genetic disorder in which an individual  cannot properly metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine. PKU is now easily detected but, if left untreated, results in mental  retardation and hyperactivity.   A genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells and occurs most  often in people of African descent.  Dealing with Genetic Abnormalities Section 3 Reproductive Challenges and Choices  PRENATAL DIAGNOSTIC TESTS  Ultrasound Sonography  Brain Imaging Techniques  Chorionic Villus Sampling  Amniocentesis  Maternal Blood Screening  Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD)  Fetal Sex Determination  INFERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY  ADOPTION  The Increased Diversity of Adopted Children and Adoptive Parents  Outcomes for Adopted Children Section 4 Heredity­Environment Interaction: The Nature­Nurture Debate  BEHAVIOR GENETICS  Behavior genetics The field that seeks to discover the influence of  heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and  development.  Twin study A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is  compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.  adoption study A study in which investigators seek to discover whether,  in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are  more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or  more like their biological parents, who contributed their heredity.  Another form of the adoption study compares adoptive and biological  siblings.  HEREDITY­ENVIRONMENT CORRELATIONS  Passive genotype­environment correlations Correlations that exist when the natural parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a  rearing environment for the child.  Evocative genotype­environment correlations Correlations that exist  when the child’s genetically influenced characteristics elicit certain types of environments.  Active (niche­picking) genotype­environment correlations Correlations  that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating.  SHARED AND NONSHARED ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERIENCES  Shared environmental experiences Siblings’ common environmental  experiences, such as their parents’ personalities and intellectual  orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in  which they live.  Nonshared environmental experiences The child’s own unique  experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not  shared with another sibling. Thus, experiences occurring within the  family can be part of the “nonshared environment.  THE EPIGENETIC VIEW AND GENE x ENVIRONMENT (G x E)  INTERACTION  The Epigenetic View  Epigenetic view Emphasizes that development is the result of an  ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and  environment.  Gene x Environment (G x E) Interaction  The interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a  specific measured aspect of the environment.  CONCLUSIONS ABOUT HEREDITY­ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.