High Renaissance (1500-1600) Notes
High Renaissance (1500-1600) Notes 1306-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Laura Gerardo on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1306-001 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Art History II in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
February 23, 2016 Page 1 I. High Renaissance (Italy, 1500- 1600) a. Leonardo da Vinci i. About Leo: 1. Born in the town Vinci, near Florence. 2. Trained as a painter in the studio of Andrea da Verrochio. 3. Interests included anatomy, botany, zoology, geography, geology, military engineering, music, art, etc.! 4. Leo was an inventor. His designs included flying machines, a tank, and military fortifications. He kept copious records of his observations. He was a genius but was the least productive of any painters. 5. Unborn child drawing – Leo attended as many as 30 autopsies to recreate the human machine. ii. Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, begun 1843, oil on wood, transferred to canvas. 1. Has a pyramid balance, which is a trademark of Leo’s. 2. Fantastical background, mysterious and spiritual. iii. Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, Santa Maria delle Grazie, 1495-1498, oil and tempera on plaster. 1. Refectory- the dining room. 2. Dimensions: 13’9” x 29’10”. 3. The image began to peel because Leo didn’t use fresco 4. They even put a doorway at Christ’s feet because it wasn’t that sacred to them. 5. Christ points with his right hand to a glass of wine and with his left to a bread roll. 6. Christ announces someone has betrayed him but is calm, rational, and unemotional. His body forms a triangle, which is the most stable geometric form. 7. Judas Iscariot is turning towards the back because it is he who betrayed Christ and he is trying not to show his guilt. 8. There are receding lines, a focal point (the main focus where the author wants you to look), equilibrium (it feels balanced), casual symmetry (there is symmetrical balance), and linear perspective. iv. Leonardo, Mona Lisa, c. 1503-1505, oil on wood, 30” x 20”. 1. Currently on display in the Louvre museum; the most viewed piece in it. 2. Wife of a wealthy businessman portrait or also suggested to be a self-portrait. 3. Leo carried it throughout his life. 4. She is smirking. He treasured this work. 5. 1911- Stolen from the Louvre for a couple of years. An Italian national had tried to sell it. a. A portion of the image is gone from the razor he used to get the painting out of the frame. 6. In the 1950s, someone threw acid at it. February 23, 2016 Page 2 7. Sfumato- smoky, smudged appearance, soft focus, life-like feeling. 8. Her hands are stunning. b. Raphael i. Raphael, Madonna in the Meadow, 1506, oil on wood. 1. Influenced by Leo’s but Raphael’s has a different background, is more open, lighter, and more airy. ii. Raphael, School of Athens (Philosophy), Vatican Palace, Rome, 1509-1511, fresco 1. Portrait of Michelangelo on the bottom, center (leaning on a ledge) writing something down. c. Michelangelo (a.k.a. Mike) i. Had connections with the Medicis as a child and later on they went to commission him. ii. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Pietà, 1498-1499, marble 1. Virgin holds the dead body of Christ. Created originally for a tomb. 2. It is now found in St. Peter’s Basilica behind bulletproof glass. 3. They’re seated on a circle, which is a solid, stable geometric form. 4. Virgin’s scale has been altered dramatically (she looks much larger than Christ). 5. Mike was 23 when he created it. He signed it (the only one he ever signed). 6. She is beautiful and youthful. 7. German man with a sledgehammer went at Mary’s face and damaged her nose, arm, and hand. iii. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David, 1501-1504, marble 1. 17 feet tall sculpture, much more strong than Donatello’s David. 2. This David is youthful but more heroic. Has a contrapposto/at ease pose. 3. Slingshot over his shoulder, having just killed Goliath and concerned, furrowed brows. 4. Donatello’s was created for the Medicis while this one celebrated the ousting of the Medicis. 5. 1991- a man with a hammer knocked off the toe. 6. Mike was very fond of toe works. iv. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican, Rome, 1508-1512, fresco 1. Built in 1473, 128 ft. long, 42 across. 2. 300 figures minimum on the ceiling. 3. Genesis – 28 scenes come from Genesis, the first book of the Bible. 4. The first figures were too small and Mike noticed it so he went on and made the figures larger. 5. Flanking the scenes are prophets and sibyls (female seers) which foretold the coming of Christ. February 23, 2016 Page 3 6. 5 nudes, 1 of them is female. 7. Ignudi- the nudes. v. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Separation of Light and Darkness with Ignudi, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, 1508- 1512, fresco 1. God the father is in the center vi. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Creation of the Sun and Moon and Planets, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, 1508- 1512, fresco 1. God’s “posse” you could say is coming from His robes. God is supposedly mooning the public. vii. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Separation of Sky and Water, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, 1508- 1512, fresco 1. Homage to Ghiberti’s flying angel in the Isaac competition. viii. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Creation of Adam, detail, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican, Rome, 1511-1512, fresco 1. God’s posse of angels is coming out of his robe as well as a woman who is the uncreated Eve peeking timidly at her future mate. 2. Adam’s pose is diagonal, of Roman river gods. 3. He lacks a soul; movement is suspended. 4. Chiaroscuro ix. Temptation/Expulsion 1. Connected by and separated by a tree. 2. Serpent shown as a woman 3. They are cast out of Eden; the angel is poking the back of Adam’s neck. 4. Eve now looks hideous and much older and carries a burden. x. Restoration of the Sistine Chapel took place from 1980- 1994. Went from somber colors to intense, vibrant colors after it was restored. xi. Michelangelo Plan for St. Peter’s Church, Vatican, Rome, 1546, Late Renaissance 1525-1600 1. Built above the grave of St. Peter during the reign of Constantine. 2. The Latin cross plan- Donato Bramante’s original plan for St. Peter’s in 1505 was that the cross-shape would have the arms of the same length. Bramante dies before it is complete however. 3. 1546- Mike is asked to take over. Still a central plan and central dome but adds a porch/official entrance/façade. He respected Bramante’s design.