Review for Coons Test 3
Review for Coons Test 3 Psych 101
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Martin on Tuesday February 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at New York University taught by Edgar Coons in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 366 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at New York University.
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Date Created: 02/09/16
social development mimicry and social referencing in neonates how do they spend their attention mimicry is when babies make the same faces as their care givers social referencing is when they look to their care givers for cues about the environment to make sure it s safe how important social cues are and how they look to their mothers soomon asch s line experiment he got a group of students together and asked them which of these 3 lines are longer weren t that far apart but when people consistently gave the shorter line the last person in line non confederate kept giving the same example the effect of conformity the last person follows individuals can reduce cognitive dissonance from participating in difficult and harsh experiences by justification of effort within social psych justification of effort is people reducing cognitive dissonance by saying a harsh experience was worth it when participants were paid money to tell people they had fun doing something they decided it was more fun boot camp frat hazing you decide hazing builds brotherhood stereotype threat performance is influenced by perceptions about how it will reflect their social group math tests ask about gender first women will do worse vs ask about race and they re asian they will do better because they re supposed to be good at math schema accommodation and assimilation in terms of schemas assimilation look at something and categorize it into an already existing schema accommodation change it to fit into a schema assimilation is easier because you just take it in accommodation is hard because you have to change it system including hypothalamus the amygdala for emotion motivation and reward the limbic system language development phoneme how sensitivity to phonemes changes while acquiring language different sounds of language when they become accustomed to mothers tongue they only use phonemes that go with mothers language if you don t speak english you can lose th or r infants acquire these and they are less able to discriminate against phonemes that aren t used often all different languages have different phonemes Ekman s research involving tribesmen from new guinea suggests that emotions his research shows expression of emotions are based in revolution took pics of white americans and the tribesmen can recognize the emotions well a lot of aspects of displayed emotions can cross cultural and geographical boundaries the ability to attribute mental states to others is tested with a false belief task the false belief task tests theory of mind the ability for young infants to attribute beliefs and mental states to people other than themselves where they have an object placed create a fictional narrative about a teddy bear put a ball under a red box then move it to red box ask a child where the bear would look for the ball the kids need to know that the bear wouldn t know where they put the ball sally ann task one doll hides something and removes it and the other is asked you are asked where you know the ball is but the doll left so they wouldn t know young kids age 2 start to lie only if you know other people don t know what happened kids start to learn that they can say the dog broke the vase not them social cognition the tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of attributions rather than situational factors the fundamental attribution error you see somebody else trip down a road you think they re clumsy you give someone else an attribution based on a disposition rather than a situational factor if I trip and fall I will say the steps are off kilter and it s situational not dispositional I m not clumsy Kolberg s 3 major stages of moral reasoning pre conventional get rewards avoid punishment what is right and wrong conventional people follow social conventions to determine what is right and wrong post conventional utilitarianism some abstract idea of what is right or wrong not because it s a social convention or it s punished set of conscious or unconscious processes attempt to influence the perceptions of others by one s self impression management trying to influence other s perceptions of you the way you dress every day picking out what is appropriate for each situation wear a suit and tie for an interview dress casual to hang with friends or you ll look uptight Two case studies of wild children suggest about acquisition of language a sensitive period for learning language the sensitive period ends right before puberty jeanie case study parents locked her in the basement and didn t talk to her and they tried to teach her words after and she couldn t do anything in terms of classical conditioning explain language acquisition parents tell their kids to say mommy and then they get excited when the kid says it so there is positive reinforcement attitude changes and influence for 200 milgram s experiments motivated by the horror of wwii obedience people would go beyond moral limits because someone in power was telling them to and they thought it freed them from responsibility shocking people how much the authority figure took on the responsibility or yelled at participants the participants would ask to stop 3 times then they would be allowed to stop people not actually getting shocked person recording is more likely to continue experiment because they aren t directly hurting the other person other experiments with shocker in room and shocker not in room more separation more likely to continue shocking attitude change and influence central and peripheral routes of persuasion central is persuaded by argument and paid attention to message sent peripheral is when you pay attention to person s attitude giving the argument why sex sells central is harder than peripheral but is stronger because peripheral varies day to day and hour to hour participants who miss attributed their arousal from a high suspension bridge with feelings of physical attraction is evidence from this theory of emotion schacter singer james lang and cannon bard where physical arousal plays into what emotion someone is feeling Iook up in text social cognition commonly used research method used to assess stereotypes and other socially undesirable beliefs the implicit association task it is supposed to get implicit beliefs or attitudes things that are socially undesirable the four developmental stages according to jean piaget sensory motor pre operational concrete operational and formal operational ainsworth s strange situation the paradigm measures at first the child was in a room with a mother then a stranger comes and the mom leaves the attitudes of the kids categorized in four groups anxious resistant don t leave moms side and explore then when she leaves the child is so upset then when she comes back they ll be mad anxious avoidant when the mom is present the baby will play with mom when she leaves they won t react then when she comes back they ignore her etc degree of attachment to mother how they react when the mom comes back consolable or not the difficulty of segmenting speech into discrete words and meanings the word boundary problem probably not on the exam see in the development of language social development the paradigm by harry harlow how baby monkeys attached to mother the monkey with fake mother that will give food then one with terrycloth but no nipple if scared it goes to terrycloth for comfort attachment is formed on basis of comfort rather than survival needs like food james lang theory suggests the major source for emotional experience suggests that feelings form emotion come directly from monitoring bodily sensation like muscle tension and heart rate running from bear afraid because we re running and our heart is pounding not because of bear young infants lack this ability to recognize objects exist when out of sight object permanence according to bowl by this relationship allows for kids with a sense of safety to explore their environment secure base attachment styles are secure kids use care givers and parents as a base they go out to a certain length and come back babbling infants experiment with making sounds without forming words sounds they make before they understand full words cognitive development describe the a not b effect child knows something is moved but still reach for it in the first place habituation because it s been repeated in the same spot again and again and again sensory motor of of the ABC s of psychology refers to experience of feelings or emotion affect the term for emotion in psychology behavior cognition fairly stable evaluations help implicitly or explicitly attitudes unpleasant state from holding inconsistent thoughts or beliefs cognitive dissonance