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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gaunt on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Cavanaugh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter Four: Delivery I. Verbal element of delivery a. Pronunciation: accepted standard: how the word sounds i. Good vocab depends on 1. Knowing the word 2. Correctly say the word ii. Mispronounced words = lack of preparation iii. Mispronounced words because 1. People learn it wrong 2. Written lexicon is > than spoken lexicon iv. Mispronounced words – harm credibility b. Articulation: physically producing the sound of the word c. Dialects: articulation, grammar, vocab, and pronunciation differs from standard English i. Subgroup of language ii. Regionally accepted errors/articulation/pronunciation d. Slang: words many people use/understand not in a professional situation i. Cultures develop own forms of slang ii. Represent subsection of people iii. Extra-contextual: move from a particular group larger context 1. Examples: lol, bruh, lit II. Nonverbal elements of delivery a. Vocalics i. Volume: how loud/soft speaker speaks 1. Environment can play a part 2. Distance that separates speaker/audience 3. Microphone used? 4. Speak loudly enough that the person farthest away can hear w/o straining ii. Tone: syllabic emphasis on sound that expresses emotion/meaning 1. Lack of tonal inflection = the speaker has lack of interest 2. Can bore audience iii. Rate: number of words spoken per minute 1. Average in the USA = 150 words/min 2. Rapid speaking = nervousness iv. Pausing 1. Can point out important places for audience to consider 2. Can let audience catch up 3. Can subdue an unruly audience 4. Vocalized pauses – normal but should be kept at minimum b. Kinesics (nonverbal movements) i. Face expresses emotions and sends messages ii. Gestures – physical movements to convey message 1. Emblem: body movements/gestures are so specific that they easily replace a word/idea a. Ex peace sign 2. Illustrators: specific movements/gestures intended to expand/clarify a word/idea 3. Regulator: movements/gestures that control the flow of a convo in small groups 4. Adaptors: gestures/movements – signal nervousness, should be avoided when speaking iii. Posture: position of body 1. Speaker should not lean on podium 2. Posture/gestures work together iv. Appearance: audience use you appearance as first clue to your statue/credibility – deemphasizing your age 1. Always dress neatly a. No headgear 2. Appearance = boost confidence 3. Result in perceived/actual performance 4. Especially important with unfamiliar audience v. Eye contact 1. Communicates self-confidence/an interest in the audience 2. Audience should be seen as individuals vi. Immediacy: behaviors promote sense of closeness between audience/speaker 1. Be strategic III. Verbal delivery involves – overall speaking style/includes words you choose/construction of sentences a. Should be appropriate to situation b. Oral communication is best when specific, simple, vivid c. Appropriate language for audiences’ frames of references IV. Modes of Delivery a. Manuscript – entire speech written out word-for-word i. Positives 1. No fear of freezing 2. Well organized 3. Good for highly technical/emotionally difficult presentations ii. Negative – hard to adjust to audience response b. Memorized – entire speech committed to memory i. Positive: contact w/ audience ii. Negatives 1. Hard to adjust to audience reaction 2. Can freeze up due to memory loss c. Impromptu: speech given with little/no advance notice, so it delivered w/o a script i. Create mental outline ii. Celebratory events are common occurrences for these iii. Audience has lower expectations d. Extemporaneous: speakers uses notes w/ only key words/phrases i. Requires practice ii. Easier to have a natural/fluid delivery iii. Improved eye contact iv. Requires sufficient practice/good notes V. Special concerns w/ online delivery a. Media presentations can be replayed i. Visual messages make the right impression 1. Conscious of visual image 2. Choose color of clothes carefully 3. Look directly at camera 4. Be conscious/aware of potential liability issues
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