High Renaissance (Italy)
High Renaissance (Italy) ART 1023
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Morris on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
High Renaissance (Italy) 1. Leonardo da Vinci Kept notebooks of sketches and notes Mirrored writing – right to left and backwards Tweaked nature – takes it in an odd direction (cats and dragons) Felt the exterior of people might reflect their interior ugliness (morals and beliefs) Foreshortening – portray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision Sfumato – the technique of allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another, producing softened outlines or hazy forms Quotes: o “He who despises painting has no love for the philosophy in nature.” o “When you are painting you should take a flat mirror and often look at your work with it, and it will then be seen in reverse, and will appear to be by the hand of some other master, and you will be better able to judge of its faults than in any other way.” o “Shadows which you see with difficulty, and whose boundaries you cannot define… these you should not represent as finished or sharply defined, for the result would be that your work would seem wooden.” 2. Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, 1495 – 1498, fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) a. Very few works were completed but the Last Supper was (Feb. 1498) b. Sforza – Duke of Milan i. Commissioned work c. Part of a larger work the Duke owned d. Jesus pointing out the bread and wine e. 6 disciples on each side of Jesus, subdivided into 4 groups of 3 i. Viewers get to see how the disciples reacted to hearing one of them was going betray Jesus 1. Judas – neck exposed, hangs himself later f. Jesus is a triangle – The Trinity – 3 windows (act as halo) g. Single point linear perspective – Christ at the vanishing point h. 4 panels on the walls represent the 4 gospels i. Considered a wreck of a painting (only 40% of the visible paint is from da Vinci) j. Painted onto dry plaster (aseco) k. Found on an exterior wall l. 3 coat of arms symbols above the painting m. The perspective is not suited to the viewer’s eye level (painted as though the viewer is floating to look at it) n. Sketches – Judas on the opposite side of the table (traditionally how the last supper was painted) i. Putting Judas on the same side as everyone else makes the viewer look at the details to figure out which one he is 3. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503 – 1505, oil on wood a. Believed to be commissioned by a Florentine merchant i. Painting was never delivered to the patron b. Vespucci Annotation: i. “The painter Apelles. In this way Leonardo da Vinci makes it in all his painting, for example the head of Lisa del Giocondo and of Anne, the mother of the Virgin. We will see what he is going to do with regard to the hall of the Great Council about which he has just agreed with the Gonfaloniere.” Oct. 1503 c. The subject of the Mona Lisa is not indoors or outdoors d. There is a sense of her acknowledging the viewer’s presence e. Her eyes were placed around the horizon line (landscape is not naturalistic) i. Landscape might reflect the thoughts and mind of the subject f. People smile in response to an outside force (someone doing something funny or making a joke) or an internal force (thinking or remembering something funny) 4. Michelangelo Taught by the Medici family Had this idea that marble already had the finished piece within it, it was just our job to release it 5. Michelangelo, David, 1501 – 1504, marble a. Place it outside of city hall making David a symbol of Florence b. Took 3 or 4 days to move the sculpture c. Weighs about 3.5 tons d. Visual paradox about the piece is it’s about a small boy but the actual sculpture is very large e. Space between arms and legs helps to read the piece f. Looks as though he is looking across the battle field g. Initially the sculpture was partly gilded (added structure), the sling would have been golden and there would have been a gilded loin cloth i. Gilded parts were destroyed over the years h. Proportions seem off a bit around the hands and the head (possibly because those are the most expressive parts of the body or it was simply a mistake on Michelangelo’s part) 6. Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (including the Creation of Adam), 1508 – 1512, fresco a. Uncomfortable to look at (painting on the ceiling – 70ft above the floor) b. Painted grid (allowed Michelangelo to manage the chunks of painting) c. Pope suggested a tromper l’oeil (trick of the eye) ceiling, Michelangelo thought it was boring d. Michelangelo was deeply unhappy painting the Sistine Chapel i. “Sonnet to Giovanni da Pistoia” e. Corner Spandrels: Old Testament (4 scenes) f. Center of Ceiling: Scenes from Genesis (9 scenes) i. Large and small scenes alternate ii. Michelangelo depicts the drunkenness of Noah g. Triangular areas above windows and lunettes: Ancestors of Christ h. Spandrels: Old Testament Prophets and Classical Sibyls (12 scenes) i. Creation of Adam (Sistine Chapel) i. Comparing profile to God ii. Adam is concave (torso curved inward) and God is convex (torso curved outward) iii. Michelangelo combed in textures into the fresco (ex. God’s beard) iv. Repetition of the “reaching” pose throughout paintings 7. Michelangelo, Last Judgment, fresco, 1534 – 1541 a. Pope Paul III commissions Michelangelo to finish after the previous Pope dies (also to get Michelangelo to come back to Rome) b. As you leave, you see the Last Judgment c. Implied compositions of the damned being taken to Hell on the right side and the saved being taken to Heaven on the left i. More emphasis on the damned being taken to Hell ii. Body language of Christ emphasizing the damnation to Hell (casting down the damned) d. Bartholomew holding the fileted skin of Michelangelo 8. Raphael, School of Athens, 1509 – 1511, fresco a. Impressive organization (architecture resembles the new St. Peter’s) b. Single – point perspective composition c. One figure resembles Leonardo da Vinci (Plato) d. Apollo and Palace Athena (sculptures painted behind the figures in the painting) e. Important people in the painting – (significant people resemble other artists) i. Socrates talking with Athenian youths (Alexander the Great?) ii. Plato (Leonardo?) 1. Holding the Timeo (book) iii. Aristotle 1. Holding ethics book iv. Apelles (Raphael?) and Sodoma v. Pythagoras vi. Heraclitus (Michelangelo?) vii. Diogenes viii. Euclid (Bramante?) ix. Zoroaster and Ptolemy f. Vanishing point of the painting is directly in between Plato and Aristotle g. Reference to perfect geometry h. Bramante works on a church in Santa Maria that resembles Raphael’s School of Athens building (High altar was built to look as though it goes back farther than it actually does – 2 dimensional illusion) 9. Bramante, Tempietto, 1502 a. Tempietto means little Temple b. Everything about the work emphasizes the central axis Photos: Leonardo da Vinci: Last Supper Mona Lisa Michelangelo: David Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Creation of Adam Last Judgment Raphael: School of Athens Bramante: Tempietto
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