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Introduction to Psychology week 2 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology week 2 Notes Psych 111

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About this Document

These notes cover week two of psychology including Modules 1 and 2
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
01/20 (lecture) 9­9:50 am  Recap:  ­ Science  ­ Behavior  ­ Mental Processes  Story of Psychology: Module 1  Keep in mind:  ­ Findings are open to interpretation  ­ Culture bound  ­ Psychologists are fallible  How did it all begin?  ­  Philosophy  ­ Aristotle  ­ Questions, but no scientific examination  Wilhelm Wundt  ­ “Father of psychology”  ­ First lab  ­ Analyzed “consciousness”  ­ Introspection  Empirical data  ­ Primary : senses  ­ Through experimentation  ­ Not just theory/logic  William James  ­ Philosopher ­ psychologist  ­ (also father of psychology)  ­ Thinking is “adaptive”  ­ Explorations of thinking  ­ stream of consciousness  Behaviorists:  ­ “scientific study of observable behavior”  ­ Watson  ­ Skinner  Psychoanalysis:  ­ Freudian  ­ Unconscious thought process  Humanistic Psychologists  ­ Carl Rogers  ­ “unconditional positive regard”  ­ Abraham Maslow  ­ Hierarchy of needs  Cognitive resolution  ­ Mental processes  ­ Neuroscience  Biopsychosocial approach:  ­ Three levels of analysis  ­ Biological  ­ Social­cultural  ­ psychological influences  ­ **see slide 16 for chart on connectivity  Critical Thinking: Module 2  So, why do we research in psychology?  ­ good ideas fail  ­ D.A.R.E.  ­ Hindsight bias  ­ Intuition  ­ Overconfidence errors  Hindsight bias:  ­ “I/They knew it all along…”  ­ Aristotle  ­ Psychics  Intuition isn’t enough:  ­ Doesn’t provide new ideas  ­ Doesn’t test new ideas  ­ Need to test!  Overconfidence error #1: performance  ­ We are much too certain in our judgements  ­ We overestimate our performance, our rate of work, our skills, and our degree of self  control  Overconfidence error #2: Accuracy  ­ We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge. People are much more certain than  they are accurate.  Recap:  ­ We need to research because…  ­ We have a tendency to think we know more than we do  Scientific attitude part 1: Curiosity  ­ Definition: “That behavior I’m noticing in that that common to all people? Or is it  more common when under stress? Or only common for males?”  ­ Always asking questions  Scientific attitude part 2: Skepticism  ­ Definition: Skepticism, like curiosity, generates questions: Is there another explanation  for the behavior I am seeing? Is there a problem with how I measured, it or how I set up  my experiment? Do I need to change my theory?  ­ Not accepting a ‘fact’ as true without challenging it  Scientific attitude part 3: Humility  ­ “What matters is not my opinion or yours but the truth nature reveals in response to our  questioning” ­ David Myers  ­ Seeking the truth rather than trying to be right; a scientist needs to accept being wrong.  Critical Thinking Goal:  ­ See if there was a flaw in how the information was collected  ­ Consider if there are other possible explanation for the facts or results  ­ Look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree  ­ Look for hidden bias, politics, values, or personal connections  ­ Put aside your own assumptions and biases and look at the evidence 


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