Introduction to Psychology week 2 Notes
Introduction to Psychology week 2 Notes Psych 111
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
01/20 (lecture) 99:50 am Recap: Science Behavior Mental Processes Story of Psychology: Module 1 Keep in mind: Findings are open to interpretation Culture bound Psychologists are fallible How did it all begin? Philosophy Aristotle Questions, but no scientific examination Wilhelm Wundt “Father of psychology” First lab Analyzed “consciousness” Introspection Empirical data Primary : senses Through experimentation Not just theory/logic William James Philosopher psychologist (also father of psychology) Thinking is “adaptive” Explorations of thinking stream of consciousness Behaviorists: “scientific study of observable behavior” Watson Skinner Psychoanalysis: Freudian Unconscious thought process Humanistic Psychologists Carl Rogers “unconditional positive regard” Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Cognitive resolution Mental processes Neuroscience Biopsychosocial approach: Three levels of analysis Biological Socialcultural psychological influences **see slide 16 for chart on connectivity Critical Thinking: Module 2 So, why do we research in psychology? good ideas fail D.A.R.E. Hindsight bias Intuition Overconfidence errors Hindsight bias: “I/They knew it all along…” Aristotle Psychics Intuition isn’t enough: Doesn’t provide new ideas Doesn’t test new ideas Need to test! Overconfidence error #1: performance We are much too certain in our judgements We overestimate our performance, our rate of work, our skills, and our degree of self control Overconfidence error #2: Accuracy We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge. People are much more certain than they are accurate. Recap: We need to research because… We have a tendency to think we know more than we do Scientific attitude part 1: Curiosity Definition: “That behavior I’m noticing in that guy...is that common to all people? Or is it more common when under stress? Or only common for males?” Always asking questions Scientific attitude part 2: Skepticism Definition: Skepticism, like curiosity, generates questions: Is there another explanation for the behavior I am seeing? Is there a problem with how I measured, it or how I set up my experiment? Do I need to change my theory? Not accepting a ‘fact’ as true without challenging it Scientific attitude part 3: Humility “What matters is not my opinion or yours but the truth nature reveals in response to our questioning” David Myers Seeking the truth rather than trying to be right; a scientist needs to accept being wrong. Critical Thinking Goal: See if there was a flaw in how the information was collected Consider if there are other possible explanation for the facts or results Look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree Look for hidden bias, politics, values, or personal connections Put aside your own assumptions and biases and look at the evidence
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