chapter3&4.pdf HIST 201-01
Popular in Colonial America to 1815
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Windhorst on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 201-01 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. William Bergmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Colonial America to 1815 in History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Pueblo Responses and Pueblo Revolt Spanish came in and controlled 1598-1680 Revolt in 1680 Sent over in smaller groups Precarious situations because of the fringes of authority by Spanish Environmental factors that led to the revolt o Set of droughts in 1660’s lead into 1670’s Lead to Famine Lead to Increased mortality o Lead to a Decline in labor o These made a cycle that repeated During periods of drought o Pueblo’s did not have the agriculture to trade o Apache Indians did not get what they needed in trade which lead to war Popé – leader of a Pueblo movement to get rid of the Spanish o Wanted to take them out by surprise o Went town to town giving the leader a rope with knots They were told to untie a knot every day, and when the last not was undone it would mean that all of the Pueblos knew about the revolt and they would do it on that day o August 11 1680 – day of the revolt Tore down churches, sanctified Keevas (or their spiritual places), reclaimed authority, and kicked the Spanish out o Wanted a purification of the Puebloan people Popé is a millenialist When Jesus comes, there will be 1000 years of peace. Removing Spanish and purifying the Puebloan society (get rid of anything Spanish) Ex) horses (work and war), pigs, cattle, plants, crops, tools, the Spanish Language which unified the Puebloans o Eventually, Popé was removed from power Lead to a destroyed society, which was more in shambles than it was before the Spanish came Unsuccessful effort to purify the people Spanish Reconquest of Northern Frontier Took back in 1693 o French had successfully come into the Mississippian territory, building a strong relationship with the Native Americans French threatened Spanish claims took back the Rio Grande River Valley to reestablish power, while trying not to draw the Europeans to the west Apache and Navaho challenged silver mining in Northern Mexico o Preserve mining o Native’s welcomed trade but did not want their control taken from them (which eventually happened) Lead to rebellions to get rid of the Spanish New effort to start an uprising, the Spanish found out and put the idea out of the Natives mind The Spanish distributed land among the family’s (Puebloan) o Had to pay taxes o No forced labor New group of slaves (Gankaros) o Ranked beneath the Pueblos. Labor and Slavery in 17 th Century Virginia Tobacco Indentured servants: a source of labor Freedom dues: enticement for indentured servants Headrights: enticement for landowners (masters) Social and economic mobility: rhetoric and limits Tobacco 1612 – attempted and succeeded o West Indies Tobacco (basic market in upper class Europeans – fit their taste better) Some but not many decided to go to Virginia, not much desire to risk life for work o High mortality rates Colonies England Land + - Available land Fixed land Cheap prices High prices Labor - + Lots of Natives, Tons of labor but hard to work More mobile and with. poverished Labor had to be classes. brought in Seasonal work. (problem for staple crops, no labor to harvest) Capitol Have to have no Have to have no matter what matter what Indentured Servants: A Source for Labor Rivers were the roads Wasn’t a big market or trade on African slaves yet o Not enough $ to get them Had to rely on the English o Built on aspiration of an English Colony (they thought best if it was ONLY Englishmen – an all- white colony) Wanted to draw in indentured servants o Was not created by the Tobacco farmers o Contracted servants – written between free man or women to serve in labor for a number of years o Indentured means contract o Master has to provide and take care of the servants (no salary/ wage) Freedom Dues Promised freedom dues (would be a payment of some sort) all negotiated in the contract, it could be anything o Most important – promise of land MOBILITY . more respected, gain economics, political huge risk on movement (death) 1618-1624 – 4,500 Englishmen move to colony of Virginia 1625 – 1,500 people (most of them had died) o High mortality rates limited movement from England Dues: o Voucher for land o Land office (depends on influence you have) o May not be the best piece of land If you survived and you get your land – most of the time you did not have it to be successful o Wanted to give it to kids to convert into something meaningful…. Most of the time they wanted to do this before they died) Indentured servants are NOT slaves o English law, no Englishmen could be a slave o Africans and Indians were used more often Unchristianized people No contract Indentured servants – no race tied to it, they are bound by a contract and protected by it Headrights: Enticement for Landowners (Masters) Benefit the colonies gave to landowners to pay their servants Headright: grant of land to who pays for passage of people to a colony o Land for each head About 50 acres o For each person So 4 people = 4 headrights o Do not have to give, they can use it as land for themselves Can sell headrights if their laborers die, some usually turn the land for their farms Master purchases contract for land gives to worker they can go find the land and contract it Social and Economic Mobility: Rhetoric and Limits 1620 -1660’s there was mobility and real possibility for mobility o If they survived: easier to acquire land, decent land o Lack of people in the colony (not a lot of competition for the jobs) o Economic and social mobility People did rise up once their freedom came about After 1660’s o Mobility and advancements became limited o Access to land dried up (did not want to go to war with the Indians) Away from rivers – cost more to get crops to the river o Land was not offered as component for indentured servants anymore Was the most important part Destroyed mobility and opportunities for government o New people came in that were smart and could have more advantages Having little education was not good anymore o Landowners want to become more prestigious and climb the social ladder o Price of slaves began to change Decline substantially Crystalize life-term slavery
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