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Week 2 Notes

by: Tamara Girodie

Week 2 Notes Psych 315

Tamara Girodie

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This week covers a continuation of the systems of control, the properties of motivated behavior, motivational mechanisms, evolutionary psychology and motivation, motivational reproduction, and the ...
Christopher Magalis
Class Notes
motivation, Psychology, systems of control, properties of motivational behavior, motivational mechanisms, evolutionary psychology, motivational reproduction, primary operating principle
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamara Girodie on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 315 at Towson University taught by Christopher Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Motivation in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
Monday, February 8, 2016 Motivational Psychology Week 2 Lecture 1 - Systems of Control Biological • • Behavioral • Cognitive - So which system of control is the most correct? In short, they are all equal. It depends on the behavior produced. - Suicide is evolutionary adaptive - Self harm is not an override of the biological systems of control, but rather works with it through the release of dopamine and endorphins. All systems of control have a grasp in this. - When you hear someone make a claim in psychology, always ask yourself, “Where is the evidence?” - The fact that depression, self cutting, and suicide exists suggests that there is an evolutionary reason for such. - A theory is only as good as the number of testable hypotheses it produces Properties of motivated Behavior - Activation: the initial drive - Direction: how to satisfy the drive - Intensity: refers to the vigor of the behavior, how intense it is • Exists on a continuum, does not necessarily include an increase in frequency of the behavior, can be read out in a variety of different ways. - When being chased, people will hide and freeze, opposite of running away. Outwardly, this is not very intense, however internal arousal is primed. • Can be measured with blood pressure monitors, EKGs, etc. 1 Monday, February 8, 2016 - Persistence: Must have some staying power, recurrence • Will be repeated until a particular goal has been met, for example you will continue to look for food when hungry Motivational Mechanisms - Stimuli which produces responses can activate and direct behavior - What produces motivated behavior? There are two different stances, nature being the primary motivational mechanism • and nurture, learned motivation • Nature could be most related to biological control systems • Nature theories are founded by instinct theorists, such as James; McDougall • Nurture theories are studied primarily through behavioral and some cognitive perspective - If sexual behavior was completely biologically driven, then it would be completely robotic and done the same way each time • Orgasm is an instinct, not a reflex - Spinal orgasm: Endorphins released at the base of the spine - Psychogenic orgasms: Endorphins in the brain • Reflexes are simple monosynaptic repeated actions, versus instincts which are more complex - Nature versus nurture; Cannot be summarized to one or the other - Motivation mechanism are complex and are present from the beginning of life - All of us have the potential to behave, because all of us have genes which produce proteins. These then go on to produce the structure of the nervous system, the primary producer of motivated behavior - The environment goes back to proteins, as the proteins are first assembled in the mother’s womb, the first environment of life. Various teratogens present in the mother’s system (smoking, drinking, drugs) can lead to changes in the protein assembly chain. 2 Monday, February 8, 2016 - Environmental factors coupled with external stimuli (such as the presence of others) react with the nervous system to produce motivated behaviors. - Stimuli can produce synaptic growth, which can also affect the chain • You can give a rodent .0000006 grams of cocaine, dopamine producers and receptors already being adjusting to uptake. However when submissive rats are placed with a dominant, dopamine goes down and eating behaviors and changed, with more food of a mediocre quality ingested, similar to depression. - Nature and nurture work together as a coordinated system to explain motivated behavior, never either/or - Motivated behavior can go all the way back to the beginning of life, even proto-cells can show motivated behavior Lecture 2 - Today’s topic: Is there a motive of all motive? Is there one underlying motive that can explain all drives? - Evolutionary Psychology: there is an ancient origin to all motivated behavior, which we see apparent in the very first cells • DNA was created through nucleic acid, however it was not in a very hospitable environment • Over time, a casing around the DNA was created, known as the membrane. This membrane supported it’s replication process, creating organelles. • Another membrane was created to protect the organelles. • This pattern of development promotes regulation, or homeostasis, which can be seen as the first motivated behavior - What is life? • Some would say it is contained organization, in which case one lonely cell would contain life - Is the motive of all motives replication? The first cell was created in order to replicate DNA, in order to maintain life. - Metabolism: All the chemical reactions in a system which will involve energy conversion, which can be split into two categories: 3 Monday, February 8, 2016 • Catabolic Reactions: Generates energy, spends energy. DNA contains phosphate bonds which are negative - negative, which contains a tremendous amount of potential energy that when the bond is broken, becomes converted into kinetic energy. Used with the sympathetic nervous system, in fight or flight, to raise metabolic reactions. • Anabolic Reactions: Stores energy, parasympathetic. Interestingly enough, bowel and bladder activity is increased when the parasympathetic nervous system is in activation. - Where there is replication, we can suggest there is reproduction. - Generally life appears to have two characteristics: Metabolism and Reproduction - Big debate in the community: Are viruses life? They do reproduce, but do not have the same metabolic reactions that mono-cell life does. Reproduction - When you find someone hot, it is not merely looks which attract you to them, but rather what the looks signify about someone’s reproductive ability - Types of Reproduction: • Asexual, or mitotic - Result of the reproduction is an exact copy of the “parent” - Bacteria and pathogens are examples of this • Sexual, or meiotic - Involves amalgamation of genetic material from two organisms • Parthenogenesis - Word of the day: Komodo Dragon - Why is this? If you look at their gametes, in the process of egg development, there is a byproduct called a polar body. This is produced in all species, but it usually dies. In Komodo Dragons, this polar body does not die, and acts as the sperm. The passive genotype is the prototype for the female, however the active genotype in this polar body is the prototype needed for a male Komodo Dragon to be born. The female Komodo Dragon is self-fertilizing. A virgin birth is produced out of parthenogenesis. 4 Monday, February 8, 2016 • Sexual behavior is motivated by the efficiency of asexual reproduction • Interestingly enough, snails can change their biological sex • Perhaps homosexuality is a result of population control? Unproven theory. - Is there a primary operating principle? (POP) • The primary motive, the motivation behind all other motivated behavior • Theory: feeding behavior, drinking behavior, temperature regulation, social and learned behavior, and emotion —> Bodily Integrity —> promotes both reproductive behaviors and parental behaviors —> Replication • Theory Summary: the motive behind all motives, the POP is replication 5


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