ENGL 202 Week 2 Notes
ENGL 202 Week 2 Notes ENGL 202 01
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ENGL 202 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Taylor on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 202 01 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Ryan Hatch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Literary Studies in Foreign Language at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
Additional Notes for Cathedral by Raymond Carver BINARY MOTIF between sight and touch Robert allows the narrator to see through touching him Robert sees things through touch narrator can literally see, but not make a connection with anyone because he refuses intimacy (touch) INTIMACY the closer someone is to you in an intimate embrace, the lesser they are a visible object for you; you have to be kinda far away in able to be seen To what extent are the senses used to connect and communicate? love, religion, blindness: all make you see something that is not there Cathedral is a literal synthesis of sight and touch the act of drawing is what brings together sight and touch at once sight (observation), touch (communication) task is to communicate to us what is unseen in the scene text needs to be read actively 3/2: Understanding the Text, p. 8592 1. PLOT theme: one common message action: the events recounted in a fictional work, the “what”, raw data, will never be accessed by the reader, the action will always be plotted plot: the way the author sequences and paces the events so as to shape our response and interpretation; gives significance to the action; the how, forcing us to ask why; conflict drives the plot, must be some destabilization of a situation sequencing: the precise order in which events are related in media res: “in the middle of things”; to start a work in the middle of the story; things have happened before the first scene and will happen after it flashbacks episode flashforward “a story might jump forward in time to recount a later episode or event in a flash forward” foreshadowing: when an author merely gives subtle hints about what will happen later in the story subplot: a plot that receives significantly less time and attention than another 2. PACE pacing: the duration of particular episodes (events) discriminated occasion: when an author slows down the pace and homes in on a particular moment and scene, ex: “Late that evening” or “The day before…” paragraphs devoted to minutes 3. CONFLINCT conflict: struggle external: arise between characters and something or someone outside of them internal: when a character struggles to reconcile 2 competing desires, needs, or duties; or 2 parts or aspects of himself, ex. head vs. heart The Shroud by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm lovable seven year old died and taken from mother son came back as ghost ad cried when mom cried in previous play sites son can’t pass to heaven unless mother stops grieving child passed and mother silently grieves instead of crying 5 Parts of Plot 1. Exposition: introduces character, their situations a setting (time and place) all basic information usually revels some source of potential conflict in the initial situation; characters may be unaware 2. Rising Action: begins with an inciting incident (a destabilizing event) or some action that destabilizes the initial situation and incites open conflict complication: an event that introduces a new conflict or intensifies an existing one 3. Climax/Turning Point: the moment when the outcome of the plot and the fate of the characters is decided epiphany: a sudden revelation of truth inspired by a seemingly trivial event crisis: precedes and precipitates the climax, the confrontation of the climax 4. Falling Action: brings a release of emotional tension and moves us toward the resolution of the conflict(s) deus ex machina: “god out of a machine” from ancient theatrical practice of using a machine to lower onto the stage a god who solves the problems of the human characters 5. Conclusion: presents us with a new and at least somewhat stable situation, gives a sense of closure, conflicts have been resolved many plots end with a situation that is similar to one it began with why and how are things different? epilogue: ties up loose ends, updates on what happened to the characters after conflicts are resolved, provides commentary on story’s larger significance denouement: can be a synonym for falling action, conclusion, or resolution, or epilogue (not used much in the textbook) plot summary/synopsis: recount of plot briefly; define terms action and plot “guests… are a convention of chivalric romance and epic”… heroes are of high rank, sent by someone of higher power tragedy: trace a downward movement centering on the character’s fall from fortune into misfortune and isolation; end unhappily (death) comedy: end happily in marriage or celebration Sonny’s Blues by James Baldwin (a punishing story) Narrator learns of brother’s arrest and rehab for heroine druggy friend waits for narrator in schoolyard to tell about Sonny’s incident narrator writes to brother in rehab after daughter Gracie passes away flashback to memory of last time with mother who expresses concern for Sonny gives light to a dead uncle who narrator didn’t know about, he died by being run over drunk by whites, destroyed narrator’s father STOPPED NOTETAKING AFTER P. 105 Background Context: post war middle of 20 century precivil rights Harlem (ghetto) rising of Jazz and musical expression WW2 for equal rights of others even though America itself was struggling for equality Harlem not approached by whites, always a segregated circle rebuilding/coping all residents of Harlem are African American must think of political context in order to realize the anchor of the story zero opportunities for advancement in Harlem Harlem is a world that offers its citizens no hope narrator’s coping strategies: teaches in Harlem, embedded himself in education, obeys the rules to keep from drowning fear characterizes the narrator, fear of life, gives himself a safe life Sonny can’t hide from life so he has the 2 outlets drugs and music Reread last page and listen to Blues for Alice by Charlie Parker Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? by Joyce Carol Oates (1938) Background: Arnold Friend character written in thought of “The Pied Piper of Tucson” who raped and killed teen aged girls kids knew but kept his secret crazy because girls always gave in “the fateful attractions of death (or the devil)” Setting: written in the 60’s, white middle class suburban, generic ambiguity of the setting maybe shows how the story can occur anywhere mother/daughter relationship is not universal but archetypal; a very immediate legibility to how Connie feels about her mom and how her mom thinks Connie feels about her Connie’s fantasies referred to as “trashy daydream” Connie’s duality or reality vs. fantasy Arnold Friend coming to her home clashes the separation between her 2 worlds fantasy almost overwhelms her reality Connie wants to be special, to be looked at, to be wanted/desirable, reach sexual maturity (romanticized LOVE), to be possessed, to find her value in/through others, to be an OBJECT not a SUBJECT, an OBJECT OF DESIRE Connie gets her fantasies from MUSIC desire is based off of distance; we want the things that we don’t really want Narration and Point of View p. 174178 narrator: someone that mediates and tells us the events in fiction voice: the verbal quality of the narration focus: the visual angle, chooses direction of our gaze and the framework of which we see things style, tone, irony everything above ^ makes up the point of view Types of Narration 1. 3 person: narrator tells an unidentified listener or reader what happened, referring to all characters using pronouns he, she, or they always external, narrator isn’t a character omniscient/unlimited: has access to the thoughts, perceptions, and experiences of more than one character limited: tells story from a distinct point of view, usually that of a single character revealing that character’s thoughts and perspectives, also known as the central consciousness objective: does not explicitly report thoughts and perspectives but hints at them through the character’s speech and actions; consists mostly of dialogue 2. 1 person: pronoun I, can be major/minor character of story, making he/she an internal character, either tells a story about someone else or one from personal experience can address an auditor: a listener in fiction whose possible reaction is part of the story unreliable narrator: ironic, unintentionally reveal flaws when trying to impress, may make false claims first person plural: pronoun we, shared perspective of a community nd 3. 2 person: consistently speak to “you”, turns the reader into a character of the story, instructional manuals or “howto” books past and present tense used to be conversational implied author: thoughts and perspectives of both the narrator and the author the narrator is neither the real or implied author
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