chapter 4 notes
Popular in Introduction to Music Literature
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by rafa.arranz.pdm on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUL2010 at University of Florida taught by Joshua Newman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music Literature in Music at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 4 Music and Ethnicity What is Ethnicity? A central building block to the sense of self, home and community groups bound by shared identity and common ancestry, that is, a combination of lived experiences and genetic materials Ethnic borders are difficult to delineate, as is the distinction between race and ethnicity Music is only one element of ethnicity Either all music is ethnic, or none of it is Cultural music preferable to ethnic music Effectiveness of Music as communicator of ideas Language vs Music Susanne Langer (philosophy in new key)- pro music John Blacking (How musical is man?)-pro language Participatory vs Presentational Participatory: focused on social cohesion (e.g. DJ), as a result it usually uses simpler melodies and rhythms. Presentational: focused on individual virtuosity These forms often serve as a reflection of cultural values. The Jalolu: musician/ historian of West Africa Performer: Jali (pl. Jalolu, Fr. Griot), singer, poet, instrumentalist, storyteller. Tells tales about many things, including ethnic group itself, with symbolism, and are passed through generations to come. Men provide instrumental accompaniment for women, other male vocalists, and themselves. Generally, a solo singer takes a leading role in presenting the historical narrative. Often, other jalolu support the soloist by singing a repetitive refrain. Music scholars call this solo/chorus song style “call and response.” Mandinka people: ethnic group of about 11 million people across West Africa. Common ancestry, language, tradition shared through oral history performed by Jali. Instruments: -Kora: a plucked 21-string chordophone, range of three octaves, soft interlocking melodies. -Belafon: xylophone -Ngoni: five-string lute -Belon: an arched harp 2 styles of singing -Donkilo: basic tune, repeated phrases to underscore story concept. -Sataro: speech-like verse to advance the story or increase dramatic pace. Includes proverbs, praise, and other commentary. 2 categories of Kora playing - Kumbengo: accompanimental, to support singing - Birmintingo: soloistic, improvisatory, and virtuosic, no singing. Performances: “KELEFABA” AND “KURUNTU KELAFA” (MEDLEY) The African Diaspora: The Blues Roots in African American work songs, field hollers, and spirituals. African influences: -social values: storytelling, group participation, improvisation -Musical style: call-and-response, rhythmic patterns, sliding pitches. -Jalolu/Kora tradition; blues singer + guitar accompaniment - storytelling genre FORM: There are a number of standard blues forms. The most common is the 12-bar blues, which divides neatly into three sections of four measures (bars) each. Over the course of 12 measures, the song’s lyrics go through a single cycle, as do the chords. Generally, the lyrics of a 12- bar blues song contain two different lines of text. The first line is sung across the first four measures of the 12-bar cycle, then is repeated over the next four measures. The second line is sung in the final four measures. Thus, the lyric form is a simple AAB. Harmonic progression: chords change every measure. Stanza 1 (bars 1-4) A: I-IV-I-I (do fa do do) Stanza 2 (bars 5-8) A: IV-IV-I-I (fa fa do do) Stanza 3 (bars 9-12) B: V-IV-I-V (sol do fa sol) THEMES: hard times, social isolation, sex (mostly good), love (often gone bad), money (mostly needing it), and the patient endurance required in the face of hardship. Performance: Sweet little angel by B.B.King American Popular Song (Ethnicity) Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899-1974)- his music had what he called representative character Wrote more than 3000 works Compositions reflected African American Heritage Led prestigious, namesake jazz orchestra for years Helped revolutionize American music e.g.performance: Caravan by the Duke Ellington Orchestra (feat Juan Tizol) - rhythms evoke an exotic atmosphere laced with feral danger - Tizol’s chromatic and undulating melody -lush and dissonant harmonization -Orchestration - form: AABA AABA (A concluding section) Western Art Music (ethnicity) William Grant Still (1895-1978) First African American composer to conduct a white American Orchestra and have a symphony performed by one Wrote 8 operas, 5 symphonies and many other classical pieces Music without Caucasian influence; used Blues and African American Spiritual. Performance: Afro-American Symphony: -Most celebrated work, shows that blues could be elevated to highest musical level (opens with a 12 bar blues theme, the second theme has the quality of an African American spiritual). -Incorporated Western Art Music traditions: Standard Orchestra and Sonata form th Identity and Ethnicity in 20 Century Europe Examples of European music making 1. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) Basque, spanish, french, swis Influenced by the exotic at 1889 Exposition Universelle, Paris. Performance: Rapsodie Espagnole (1907–1908): “Habanera”: It consists of four movements : “Prélude à la nuit,” “Malagueña,” “Habanera,” and “Feria”. Here we examine the “Habanera” movement, which is modeled on a Cuban dance genre. Initially a dance form, that Ravel would abandon and take to concert halls. Non-European imagery: orchestration/timbre, Afro-Cuban rhythms infused with cuban dance. 2. Béla Bartók (1881–1945) Hungarian ethnic (folk music) in context of Western European Art Music Hungarian pianist, composer, scholar of folk music Performance: Allegro Barbaro for solo piano (1911) -Aggressive dissonances -spare and dissonant harmonic style, scales and rhythmic patterns of folk music Klezmer Brought to US by Eastern European Jewish immigrant during the early 20 th century. Today it is a rapidly growing popular world music commercial genre. Performance: Perets-Tants performed by The Klezmatics -main role: before violin, now clarinet Other instruments include trumpet, cimbalom, flute, accordion, saxophone, drums, etc. -Style was softened for Broadway, but harmonic and melodic elements of Jewish traditions remain. -Rhythmic elements of Western popular music - Added a dash of social activism, a pinch of Jewish mysticism, and sounds (from jazz to punk) of the city in which they live and perform. -Form: Intro / AA / BB / CC / DD / CC / DD / E / AA / BB / CC / DD / CC / DD Types of instruments Chordophones- strings Idiophones- xylophone (percussion, thing itself sounds) Aerophones- winds Membranophones- drums (percussion) Electrophones- computer (DJ)
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