chapter 5 notes
Popular in Introduction to Music Literature
Popular in Music
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by rafa.arranz.pdm on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUL2010 at University of Florida taught by Joshua Newman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music Literature in Music at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 5 Music and Gender Understanding gender -gender is performed: Choice of clothing Body stance Speech Gesture Perceptions of gender in music -reflections of cultural ideals: Strings and woodwinds express the “gentle” feminine Brass and percussion represent the “brawny’ masculine Women excluded from: instruments/ensembles in some rituals, and composition activities. -e.g. Barber Adagio-versions: Feminine: violin, flute, light tone Masculine: brass, deeper tone (darker) Neutral: strings exclusively -Female composers in western art music (Socrates-1900s): Hildegard of Bingen, th Comtessa de Dià, Isabella Leonarda, Elisabeth Claude Jacquet, 19 century Fanny Mandelssohn Hensel, Clara Wieck Schumann. Gender in popular music -Popular music performance; both aural and visual -Early rock n roll dominated by white males (performers, writers, producers, even audiences) -Roots of rock n roll: Elvis Presley, which was viewed as either hyper-masculine, or effeminate and a dangerous role model. Once black people made it, Little Richard and Chuck berry. -Also Girl groups in 1960s: diminutive names such as the Ronettes or The Bobbettes (black teenage girls) Song lyrics portrayed a restrictive social world of carefully constructed gender roles (expectations: men strong and faithful, women self-worthy if one had boyfriend) Most songs express teenage women’s romantic fantasies, abandonment, and their need for men (e.g. It’s my party by Lesly Gore) -Aretha Franklin (b.1942) Gospel, soul singer Spokesperson for African American women, hugely influential, distinct from dependent girl groups. e.g. “Respect” (performance): - composed and recorded by Otis Redding in 1965 (defensive male perspective: disillusionment with infidelity) - recorded by Aretha Franklin in 1967 (strong female perspective: demands respect, no infidelity) - Aretha version: oozed authority, demanding and dominant voice, pleading not asking, projected antithesis of girl group dependency on men, women earns the money, taking charge of domestic life as well, men’s messing around is going to STOP)-Woman is most powerful. - Redding version: infidelity, disillusionment, and love on the rocks. Redding portrays am man on the defensive, can’t control his cheating woman, neither can he find strength to leave her. - Current situation: -Androgyny (mix of both genders) in the 1970s Glam Rock Movement that emerged in the 1970s, that continued that curious and ironic journey toward androgyny that Elvis Presley and his contemporaries began. Male performers in makeup, jewelry, platform shoes, long carefully coiffed hairdos (e.g. David Bowie) Gender ambiguity for shock value, redefining “sexy’, to portray exotic persona, symbolic rejection of capitalist society. - Elvis Presley (1935-1977) hyper-masculine or effeminate? - David Bowie (1947-2016) androgyny or exotic? - Elvis Presley (Santa Lucia): effeminate, dangerous role model, dance rhythm, lovey-dovey lyrics, not projective, take away , or hyper-masculine. - David Bowie (Star man); Androgyny, exotic, masculine lyrics, but feminine sounds and vibe, blurring lines Gender in the World Balinese Gamelan-Percussion orchestra Instrument are arranged in complementary pairs of male and female. Female instruments are toned lower (reflects closeness to Earth), whereas male instrument are tuned higher. Whatever it is, they must sound together in order to attain the gamelan’s shimmering effect. Until recently, women were prohibited to play gamelan, mainly because of Gaya style. Women’s gamelans are informal performances (forming their own ensembles), outside the Hindu temple, in a modest and reserved style. The women play more slowly, are apt to make more mistakes, and often have less-polished performances (girls start later than boys, must perform modestly according to social norms (NO showmanship, no expression of Gaya). e.g Mekar Sari , women’s gamelan. Men’s performances, on the other hand, are intrinsic to Hindu temple festivals, and emphasize Gaya-style (projection of energy, showmanship and vigor during performance- considered a masculine quality). Women’s Laments Songs associated with life-cycle transitions (birth, puberty, marriage, or death). Sons specifically related to death(rituals) are called laments. Laments are passed on by social tradition Laments facilitate emotional catharsis (rebirth) Performance characteristics: wailing, sobbing, speech-like song, and non- tonal pitch inflection. E.g. “Mă Guaritt̹ă”-means to cry with tears - Called bocete (Transylvanian lament) - Fully or partially improvised, but follows a recognizable formula. - Descending 4-note (just uses 4 pitches), simple and modal melody. - Short melodic phrases separated by pauses, ending on same pitch, ending with a sigh-like “ah” sound at the end. - Descending melodic contour, sigh-like “ah” - The text setting is syllabic, as if the lamenter is half speaking, half intoning her thoughts. Some of the phrases are ornamented with oscillating pitches, especially those that call out the name of the deceased, Guarita˘(Georgie). Gender on stage - Libretto often reflects stereotyped gender roles - Elements of music may enhance aspects of character’s role. - E.g. “Habanera” from the opera “Carmen” by Georges Bizet (1875) o African-Cuban rhythms of habanera signal sensuality o Chromatic harmonies convey exoticism and seduction o Carmen represents the ultimate femme fatale. Her character is mirrored in the music through a combination of rhythmic, melodic, and textual elements o Woman’s role in 1870s Europe: faithful and obeying, otherwise would have harsh repercussions (men in power) - Act II / Scene 2 from the opera “Siegfried” by Richard Wagner (1871) o Part of four-opera cycle, Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelunge). The third of the four Ring operas is titled Siegfried. o In accordance with his desire to unify all of the arts, Wagner expanded the expressive range of the orchestra, harmonies. o Tell story thanks to Leitmotives: short musical motives representing people and places, things and ideas. e.g. Horn call (Siegfried leitmotif): it is a call to battle, represents youth, boundless energy and bravery, tonally stable (hear it 3 times). Chromatic, low brass (Fafner/ dragon leitmotif): a more personal tune, it is contemplative, dark and less youthful represents brutality and danger, tonally unstable, and finally is destined to succumb to deception and a murderous end. Gender confusion in Opera th th - Gender ideals change in history, (e.g. 18 and 19 century male ideal was golden soprano) - Boy soprano voice- castrato - Today, castrati roles are sung either by women or countertenors (men who have developed their falsetto range) - Cross gender humor: the classic “pants” or “breeches role” o Julio Caesar among most famous “pants” roles, or sung by castrato in George Frederic Hendel’s Giulio Cesare in Egitto.
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