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Introduction to Psychology week 5 Notes

by: AHegerman

Introduction to Psychology week 5 Notes Psych 111

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About this Document

These notes cover week 5 notes including module 28
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
02/08 (lecture) 9­9:50 am  Review  ­ Serial position effect  ­ Encoding failure  ­ Storage decay  ­ Retrieval failure  ­ Interference  ­ Motivated forgetting/repression  ­ Memory construction errors  Announcements:  ­ Peer review of Dunlosky et al. response paper in lab  ­ You need a paper copy or you will be asked to leave the class  Language and Thought: Module 28  Overview:  ­ Basics of language  ­ Language development  ­ Debate over language development  ­ Statistical learning of language  ­ Critical periods of language  ­ Linguistic determinism  ­ Bilingual advantage  ­ Other species and language  What is language?  ­ Language​  consists of the use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store  meaning/information  ­ Symbols​  include organized patterns of sounds, visual representations, and movements  ­ Meaning​  includes concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts, and customs  What is language made of?  ­ Phonemes​  are the smallest unit of sound  ­ Morphemes​  are the units of meaning  ­ Grammar​  refers to the rules for using words, including semantics, definitions,  connotations, and syntax  Phonemes:  ­ Chairs has 6 letters but only 4 phonemes: CH­AI­R­S  Consonants ­ Vowels  ­ Ths s wht lngge lks lk wtht vwls  ­ Across all languages  Morphemes ­ Smallest meaningful unit of language  ­ Can be a word (dog, run, party)  ­ Prefix/suffix (­er, ­pre, ­ful)  Grammar ­ Semantics  ­ Derive meaning from sound  ­ Word learning  ­ i.e.  ­ Thift is meaningless  ­ Theft has meaning  Syntax  ­ Rules for how words should be ordered into sentences  ­ Differ for questions and statements  ­ Is this a lecture?  ­ This is a lecture  ­ Need more than just semantics and syntax  When do we learn language?  The beginnings of language  ­ Early milestones of language development  ­ Birth 1­ month  ­ Crying is the predominant sound  ­ 1 ­ 2 months  ­ Laughing and cooing sounds  ­ Vowel sounds  ­ May include laughing  ­ Welcome relief from crying  ­ 6 ­ 7 months  ­ Babbling; repetitive vowel­consonant combinations  ­ Consonant vowels  ­ Repetition of sounds  ­ Imitation  ­ May repeat words  ­ Not really using language  ­ Around one year  ­ One word stage  ­ Around 2 years  ­ Two word stage  ­ Telegraphic stage  The beginning of language  ­ First words  ­ Holophrases  ­ Single word expresses  ­ Complex ideas  ­ Water  ­ Naming explosion  ­ Telegraphic Speech: refers to the two­word stage of language development in  children ages 18­24 months  ­ Receptive language  ­ Receptive language​  is the ability to understand words  ­ At eight months of age​  babies begin to store words in memory  ­ At nine to ten months of age​  babies typically understand 10­20 words  ­ At thirteen months of age​  babies typically understand 100 words  Language Debate!  ­ Skinner (environment/empiricism)  ­ Learn from environment  ­ Language is reinforced  ­ Well taught well spoken  ­ Chomsky (nature/nativist)  ­ Language acquisition device  ­ Poverty of stimulus  ­ Environment matters!  ­ The more a mother (the parent) talks to the child the more they are to learn words  and language.  The Nativist View:  ­ Grammar rules are acquired before exception mastery  ­ Rule­governed errors are made (overregularization)  ­ Comprehension and production are guided by the Language Acquisition Device (LAD)  The Interactionist View  ­ Four key ideas  ­ Language follows rules as a part of cognition  ­ Language includes internal and external factors  ­ Infants are born with biological preparedness to pay more attention to language than to  other information  ­ The infant's brain has generalized tools used across all cognitive domains ­ NOT  language­specific neurological model    02/10 (lecture) 9­9:50 am  Language continued: Module 28  Topics:  ­ Linguistic determinism  ­ The idea that our specific language determines how we think  ­ For example, Benjamin Whorf (1897­1941) proposed that because the Hopi do  not have past tense form for verbs, it is hard for them to think about the past  ­ Close but not entirely right…  ­ Statistical learning  ­ Critical periods  ­ Aphasia  ­ Animal languages  Languages influence on thought  ­ words vary depending on culture  ­ Japanese has more words for interpersonal emotions  ­ English has more words for self­focused emotions  ­ Words for color **see slides for example**  Explaining Language Acquisition: Nature and Nurture  ­ The role of genes  ­ We seem to have an inborn (genetic) talent for acquiring language, though no  particular kind of language is in the genes  ­ The role of experience  ­ We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern recognition talent. Infants recognize  patterns in syllable frequency and sequence, preparing them to later learn words  and syntax.  Genie  ­ Tragic case of child neglect  ­ Not exposed to speech  ­ Was able to learn basic social skills and nonverbal communication  ­ Never fully able to learn a language  Brain damage and language  Aphasia: an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by  damage to the brain.  ­ Broca’s area, in the left temporal lobe  ­ productive language problems ­ hard to come up with words  ­ Wernicke’s area, left temporal lobe  ­ Comprehension problems ­ difficult to produce coherent speech  Critical periods:  ­ According to one study with immigrants, beginning a language later made it harder to  learn pronunciation and the grammar of the second language  ­ It is important to begin appropriate language/exposure/education early so that language  centers of the brain continue to develop  Language is age sensitive because of pruning  ­ Unused neural connections wither away  ­ Sounds and syntax for languages not used  ­ Strengthens connections for language(s) used  Do other species use language?  ­ Receptive ­ definitely use human language  ­ Productive ­ It depends…  Is bee dance language?  ­ Bee’s watching the dance  ­ Bee flies to flowers  ­ **see slides for pictures**  Teaching non human primates sign language  ­ Vocabulary and syntax like a toddler  ­ Some can understand syntax (you tickle vs tickle you)  ­ New word combinations  ­ Teach young new language  Bottom line:  ­ Animals have some grasp of language, but not the same applications and complexities as  do humans 


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