Introduction to Psychology week 5 Notes
Introduction to Psychology week 5 Notes Psych 111
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by AHegerman on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
02/08 (lecture) 99:50 am Review Serial position effect Encoding failure Storage decay Retrieval failure Interference Motivated forgetting/repression Memory construction errors Announcements: Peer review of Dunlosky et al. response paper in lab You need a paper copy or you will be asked to leave the class Language and Thought: Module 28 Overview: Basics of language Language development Debate over language development Statistical learning of language Critical periods of language Linguistic determinism Bilingual advantage Other species and language What is language? Language consists of the use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning/information Symbols include organized patterns of sounds, visual representations, and movements Meaning includes concepts, quantities, plans, identity, feelings, ideas, facts, and customs What is language made of? Phonemes are the smallest unit of sound Morphemes are the units of meaning Grammar refers to the rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations, and syntax Phonemes: Chairs has 6 letters but only 4 phonemes: CHAIRS Consonants Vowels Ths s wht lngge lks lk wtht vwls Across all languages Morphemes Smallest meaningful unit of language Can be a word (dog, run, party) Prefix/suffix (er, pre, ful) Grammar Semantics Derive meaning from sound Word learning i.e. Thift is meaningless Theft has meaning Syntax Rules for how words should be ordered into sentences Differ for questions and statements Is this a lecture? This is a lecture Need more than just semantics and syntax When do we learn language? The beginnings of language Early milestones of language development Birth 1 month Crying is the predominant sound 1 2 months Laughing and cooing sounds Vowel sounds May include laughing Welcome relief from crying 6 7 months Babbling; repetitive vowelconsonant combinations Consonant vowels Repetition of sounds Imitation May repeat words Not really using language Around one year One word stage Around 2 years Two word stage Telegraphic stage The beginning of language First words Holophrases Single word expresses Complex ideas Water Naming explosion Telegraphic Speech: refers to the twoword stage of language development in children ages 1824 months Receptive language Receptive language is the ability to understand words At eight months of age babies begin to store words in memory At nine to ten months of age babies typically understand 1020 words At thirteen months of age babies typically understand 100 words Language Debate! Skinner (environment/empiricism) Learn from environment Language is reinforced Well taught well spoken Chomsky (nature/nativist) Language acquisition device Poverty of stimulus Environment matters! The more a mother (the parent) talks to the child the more they are to learn words and language. The Nativist View: Grammar rules are acquired before exception mastery Rulegoverned errors are made (overregularization) Comprehension and production are guided by the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) The Interactionist View Four key ideas Language follows rules as a part of cognition Language includes internal and external factors Infants are born with biological preparedness to pay more attention to language than to other information The infant's brain has generalized tools used across all cognitive domains NOT languagespecific neurological model 02/10 (lecture) 99:50 am Language continued: Module 28 Topics: Linguistic determinism The idea that our specific language determines how we think For example, Benjamin Whorf (18971941) proposed that because the Hopi do not have past tense form for verbs, it is hard for them to think about the past Close but not entirely right… Statistical learning Critical periods Aphasia Animal languages Languages influence on thought words vary depending on culture Japanese has more words for interpersonal emotions English has more words for selffocused emotions Words for color **see slides for example** Explaining Language Acquisition: Nature and Nurture The role of genes We seem to have an inborn (genetic) talent for acquiring language, though no particular kind of language is in the genes The role of experience We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern recognition talent. Infants recognize patterns in syllable frequency and sequence, preparing them to later learn words and syntax. Genie Tragic case of child neglect Not exposed to speech Was able to learn basic social skills and nonverbal communication Never fully able to learn a language Brain damage and language Aphasia: an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by damage to the brain. Broca’s area, in the left temporal lobe productive language problems hard to come up with words Wernicke’s area, left temporal lobe Comprehension problems difficult to produce coherent speech Critical periods: According to one study with immigrants, beginning a language later made it harder to learn pronunciation and the grammar of the second language It is important to begin appropriate language/exposure/education early so that language centers of the brain continue to develop Language is age sensitive because of pruning Unused neural connections wither away Sounds and syntax for languages not used Strengthens connections for language(s) used Do other species use language? Receptive definitely use human language Productive It depends… Is bee dance language? Bee’s watching the dance Bee flies to flowers **see slides for pictures** Teaching non human primates sign language Vocabulary and syntax like a toddler Some can understand syntax (you tickle vs tickle you) New word combinations Teach young new language Bottom line: Animals have some grasp of language, but not the same applications and complexities as do humans
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