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Soc 108

by: Briana montgomery
Briana montgomery
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Intro to Sociology
Gregory Maddox

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notes over chp 3-4
Intro to Sociology
Gregory Maddox
Class Notes
sociology 108




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana montgomery on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 108 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Gregory Maddox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
108 sociology teacher Mr Maddox NOTES notes 4 major no scientific of knowledge objectivity verifiability causation contest multiple causation variable SIUC SOC108 1 intuition 2 common sense 3 authority 4 tradition Scientists are expected to prevent personal biases from in uencing the interpretation of the results Data is to be interpreted on the basis of merit A study can be repeated by others this exposes one work to critical analysis retesting 1 identify the problem 2 reviewing the literature 3 formulating hypotheses 4 developing a research design 5 collecting data 6 analyzing data 7 stating finding and conclusion 0 event occur in predictable nonrandom ways 0 one event leads to another An event occur as a result of several factors operating in combination and variables quantitative variable wide qualitative variable deep types of variables dependent variables manipulated independent variables intervening variables Correlational relationship correlation positive correlation negative correlation criteria for a cause and effect relationship quantitative research methods survey research A characteristic that is subject to change all variable are by their nature either A variable that can be measured and given numerical valueage level of education income Variation in kind versus in numerical degreesex marital status depending on the research design variables which a change or effect can be observed or you expect to observe variables that causes something to occur to the dependent in uence the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable leads to a spurious relationship when a change in one variable causes change in one or more other variable independent and dependent variables change in the same directions independent and dependent variables change in opposite directions 1 two variables must be correlated 2 all possible contaminating mentors must be taken into account 3 a change in the independent variable must occur before a change in the dependent variable can occur include survey research and pre collected datasecondary researchanalysis the first data collected allows for wider scope of information but less depth random sample stratified random sample close ended questions yes or no open ended questions can get different answers disadvantages of survey research researcher in uence on results pre collected data case study 0 ideal for studying large numbers of people 0 representative samples are selected 0 relatively precise 0 permit the statistical comparison of responses A sample of the population Where every member of the population was equal opportunity of being selected for inclusion in the sample population is divided into categoriessex age racesubj cots are selected randomly from each category limited predetermined set of answers are provided may fail to elicit the participants underlying attitudes and opinions Asks the respondent to answer in his or her own words not always easy to quantify o expensive 0 not include unanticipated information 0 responses rates are often low 0 bias 0 lack of depth 0 Hawthorne effect the way the questions are asked can cause different answers manifest dysfunctions and consists cheapcan see results over time A thorough investigation of a single group a single incident or a single community generally uses one or more of these approaches 1 info obtained from informants 2 intensive observations 3 informal internews examples newspapers files formal interviews official records and surveys field research undercover COP ethnography participant observations subjective approach ethnomethodology reliability validity replication repeated research cognitive dimension of culture normal dimension of culture investigates aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively and that are best understood within a natural setting An approach to field work developed by social anthropologist attempts a detailed and accurate description of a group39s way of life A researcher becomes a temporary member of a group being studied A development in microsociology that attempts to uncover taken for granted social routines o is the study of processes people develop and use in understanding the routine behaviors expected of themselves and others in everyday life A measurement technique must yield consistent results on repeated applications exist when a measurement technique actually measures what it is designed to measure the duplication of the same study to ascertain it accuracy is closely linked to both reliability and validity in that reliability 0 refers to a culture39s construction of ideas and knowledge 0 beliefs ideas concerning the nature of reality not moral Viewpoint moral Viewpoints values are re ected in culture norms all those rules Norms defines appropriate and inappropriate behavior should or should not 0 change throughout time from culture to culture help explain why people in a society or group behave similarly in similar circumstances types of norms enforcement of norms what are values norms are based on a culture39s values 1 Folkwaysrules that cover customary ways of thinking feeling and behaving 1ittle or no moral significance followed the sanctions are minor 2 Mores normsrules with moral significance seen as vital to the well being of society violations evoke strong disapproval 3 Taboo a type of morel that is extremely serious example incest cannibalism o thoughts of them general disgust in that society 4 Laws norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials consciously created and enforced specify definitions and punishment for violations mores taboos and important sources of laws 1 sanctions rewards punishments used to encourage conformity to norms 2 formal sanctions given only by officially designated persons An A for academic performance time in jailprison for fraud 3 informal sanctions can be applied by most members of society thanking someone for helping you change a tire values broad cultural principles that many people in society consider desirable general ideas about What people feel to be good bad or acceptableunacceptable ideal vs real culture ideal culture cultural guidelines publicly embraced by members of society those me claim to accept real culture actual behavior patterns exhibited by members of society


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