Intro to Anthropology, Week 5 Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 5 Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 5 Chapter 5 bipedalism – walking on two feet rather than four mosaic evolution – a phenotypic pattern that shows how different traits of an organism, responding to different selection pressures, may evolve at different rates omnivorous – eating a wide range of plant and animal foods Australopithecus – the genus in which taxonomists place most of the early hominins showing skeletal evidence of bipedalism cranial capacity – the size of the braincase Homo – the genus to which taxonomists assign large-brained hominins 2 million years old and younger Oldowan tradition – a stone-tool tradition named after the Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania), where the first specimens of the oldest human tools were found. The earliest specimens of this tradition are 2.6 million years old and were found in Gona, Ethiopia taphonomy – the study of the various processes that objects undergo in the course of becoming part of the fossil and archaeological records Homo erectus – the species of large-brained, robust hominins that lives between 1.8 and 0.4 million years ago Acheulean tradition – a Lower Paleolithic stone-tool tradition associated with Homo erectus and characterized by stone bifaces or “hand axes” Early Stone Age (ESA) – the name given to the period of Oldowan and Acheulean stone-tool traditions in Africa archaic Homo sapiens – hominins dating from 500,000 to 200,000 years ago that possessed morphological features found in both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens replacement model – the hypothesis that only one subpopulation of Homo erectus, probably located in Africa, underwent a rapid spurt of evolution to produce Homo sapiens 200,000- 100,000 years ago. After that time, Homo sapiens would itself have multiplied and moved out of Africa, gradually populating the globe and eventually replacing any remaining populations of Homo erectus or their descendants regional continuity model – the hypothesis that evolution from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens occurred gradually through the traditional range of Homo erectus Neandertals – an archaic species of Homo that lived in Europe and western Asia 130,000-35,000 years ago Mousterian tradition – a Middle Paleolithic stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals in Europe and southwestern Asia and with anatomically modern human beings in Africa Middle Stone Age (MSA) – the name given to the period of Mousterian stone-tool traditional in Africa, 200,000-40,000 years ago intrusions – artifacts made by more recent populations that find their way into more ancient strata as the result of natural forces Denisovans – a population of Pleistocene hominins known only from ancient DNA recovered from two tiny 41,000-year-old fossils deposited in Denisova Cave, Russian Siberia. Denisovans and Neanderthals are thought to share a common ancestor that left Africa 500,000 years ago. Parts of the Denisovan genome resemble the genomes of modern human from New Guinea Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (LSA) – the name given to the period of highly elaborate stone-tool traditions in Europe which blades were important, 40,000-10,300 years ago blades – stone tools that are at least twice as long as they are wide composite tools – tools such as bows and arrows in which several different materials are combined (e.g. stone, wood, bones, ivory, antler) to produce the final working implement Module 2 relative dating methods – dating methods that arrange material evidence in a linear sequence, each object in the sequence being identified as older or younger than another object numerical (or “absolute”) dating – dating methods based on laboratory technologies that assign age in years to material evidence stratum – layer; in geological terms, a layer of rock and soil law of superposition – a principle of geological interpretation stating that layers lower down in a sequence of strata must be older than the layers above them and, therefore, that objects embedded in lower layers must be older than objects embedded in upper layers law of crosscutting relationships – a principle of geological interpretation stating that where old rocks are crosscut by other geological features, the intruding features must be younger than the layers of rock they cut across biostratigraphic dating – a relative dating method that relies on patterns of fossil distribution in different rock layers seriation – a relative dating method based on the assumption that artifacts that look alike must have been made at the same time assemblage – artifacts and structures from a particular time and place in an archeological site isotopic dating – dating methods based on scientific knowledge about the rate at which various radioactive isotopes of naturally occurring elements transform themselves into other elements by losing subatomic particles nonisotopic dating – dating methods that assign age in years to material evidence by not by using rates of nuclear decay Lecture – February 8, 2016 prognathism – feature of the skull that includes protruding crainum and mandible encephalization – growth of the brain Homo habilis – first known hominin to use tools Olduvai Gorge – location where Homo habilis tools were found Olduwan tools – simple tools used by Homo habilis Acheulean tools – tools used by Homo erectus; named after location where they were found Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo heidelbergensis – first hominins to migrate outside of the African continent; first hominins to use fire and live in different climates; learned how to use different tools and to cook culture – extrasomatic means of adaptation; human-made part of the environment (niche construction); new selective pressure Lecture – February 10, 2016 culture (continued) – symbolically mediated (letters, words, etc.) if culture is associated with encephalization, why don’t human brains continue to grow? physical limitations (bigger brains require bigger bodies which need more food to survive) different storage methods besides memory (books, art, technology) specialization (focus on particular kinds of knowledge; we have socially adapted to build off of each other’s knowledge)
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