Comm. Ch 12-13 Notes
Comm. Ch 12-13 Notes Comm 201
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Date Created: 04/09/16
CHAPTER 12 (Rhetorical Communication) 12.1) The Importance of Communication RHETORICS FUNCTION IN SOCIETY Rhetorical communication serves three functions 1) Helps strengthen democratic societies. 2) Helps people pursue justice. 3) Helps people clarify their own beliefs and actions. THE ADVANTAGES OF STUDYING RHETORIC 1) Understanding viewpoints surrounding social issues. 2) Understand culture. 3) Critically evaluate and respond to persuasive messages. 4) Become better communicators IN REGARDS TO BECOMING A RHETORICAL CRITIC An informed consumer of rhetorical disclosure is prepared to analyze rhetorical text. Rhetorical criticism is a method for generating knowledge about rhetoric TRUTH AND RHETORIC *SOPHISTS First to teach in Greek citystates They (Sophists) demonstrated and held persuasive speaking techniques. They would be seen as unethical in today’s culture. *Plato Rejected the relativist approach and believed that speakers should only use rhetoric when searching for universal truths. *Aristotle Plato’s former student Viewed rhetoric as a way to discover all possible means of persuasion in a situation. *Cicero Used rhetoric for the good of the public. Identified the three purposes of public speaking (informing, entertaining and persuading). *Augustine Represented the Catholic Church’s thought. Used rhetoric to derive divine truth. 12.2) What is rhetoric? A broader view. THE DEFINITION OF RHETORIC VARIES BASED UPON The person offering the definition. The historical period in which the definition is offered. EVERY RHETOR HOLDS A SOCIAL POSITION This position determines his/her right to speak or access civic speaking spaces. Varies across cultures. 12.3) The Rhetor: The Rhetor’s viewpoint ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS ETHOS(Credibility) What rhetors thought of as the most important aspect. This is where rhetors cast a persona to the viewing audience. PATHOS(Passion) This is the emotion the rhetor uses to capture the audience. LOGOS(Logic) This is the general reasoning or “logic” used in the rhetor’s argument SOCIAL POSITION AND RELATIONSHIP TO AUDIENCE SOCIAL POSITION Social position is where one stands in regards to a societal structure. RHETORICAL AUDIENCE Those who take appropriate action based on what the rhetor is saying/conveying. A narrow perspective Audiences are fragmented It can be difficult for rhetors to persuade based on the audience that he/she is speaking to. 12.4) The individual, rhetoric and society REAFFIRMING CULTURAL VALUES Rhetorical events Epideictic rhetoric (Blaming and Praising) > Reaffirms cultural values INCREASING DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION DELIBERATIVE RHETORIC What a society should do in the future. Focuses on the public sphere. BRINGING ABOUT JUSTICE FORENSIC RHETORIC Setting things right after an injustice. Setting ideas about what is “just” and “injust”. Changes with time. > These includes views on “slavery” and “woman’s rights”. PROMOTING SOCIAL CHANGE Rhetorical events can prompt social change. Social movements >Messages embedded in the culture of the times. 12.5) Ethics and Rhetoric >No setlist of rules to guide ethical choices. >Be aware of of Rhetor’s language. >Notice ends or goals of rhetorical messages. >Social media can shape rhetorical messages. ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR RECEIVERS OF COMMUNICATION Be willing to listen to a range of perspectives. Speak out if you hear misinformation. Avoid being silenced by information overload Listen critically to the rhetor Speak out publically if a rhetor demeans others. Fairly assess what you hear. Be willing to change your mind 12.6) Understanding your Rhetorical skills: Speaking in Public UNDERSTANDING THE COMMUNICATION EVENT: THE SYNERGISTIC EVENT STEP ONE: IDENTIFY YOUR GENERAL PURPOSE Informative Speeches Persuasive Speeches Evocative/specialoccasion Speeches STEP TWO: UNDERSTANDING YOUR AUDIENCE What does the audience know about the topic? What do they want to know? What do your listeners know about you? What do they need to know? What expectations do your listeners have for the presentation? Who are your audience members? Demographic analysis. STEP THREE: SELECTING YOUR TOPIC The communication event. Your interests. Your relationship to the communication event. STEP FOUR: IDENTIFYING A SPECIFIC PURPOSE What you would like to inform or persuade your audience about. Feeling you would like to evoke. “Nutshell” summary of what audience should take away. RESEARCHING AND ORGANIZING YOUR PRESENTATION CRAFTING YOUR THESIS STATEMENT FINDING SUPPORTING MATERIALS > Electronic sources > Print sources > Personal sources > Statistics > Examples > Personal narratives > Visual aids ORGANIZING YOUR MESSAGES > Choose an organizational pattern > Three to five main points > Divide main points into subpoints ORGANIZING YOUR MESSAGES(five points) 1) Chronological pattern(timeline) 2) Spatial pattern(location) 3) Topical pattern(logical) 4) Problemsolution pattern(problem and solution) 5) Causeeffect pattern(event and ramifications) > Outlining your speech > Introduction, body, and conclusion signposts/transitions > “my first point, my second point, my last past…” > “let’s begin with” > “my next point” > “no that i’ve shown “x” and “y” , i’ll wrap up with “z”...” REHEARSING AND DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH Being aware of the time. Projecting a persona > Eye contact Rehearsing your speech Speech delivery and overcoming anxiety > Peak anxiety at the beginning of speech. > Speaking becomes easier with each speech. BASIC SPEAKING DIAGRAM CHAPTER 13 (MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION) 13.1) The importance of Mass Media FUNCTIONS OF MEDIA MESSAGES 1) The media messages and and images the shapes how people view the world and others. 2) The media environment is an interaction because people select programs to watch 3) Media provides both information and entertainment Six current changes in mass communication 1) New form, content and substance 2) New kinds of interactive media 3) New media ownership patterns 4) New viewing patterns and audience habits 5) New patterns in family life 6) New patterns of interactive media use by youth 13.2) What are Mass Media MEDIA Channels for communication flow MASS MEDIA Culture industries Communication framed by the media available during a given time. NEWSPAPERS Earliest media form Today, a decline in readership MAGAZINES Developed with the lowest cost of mass printing Increasingly moving to digital formats MASSMARKET PAPERBACKS EBOOKS Becoming more userfriendly Many readers still prefer the printed page. MOVIES RADIO Initially used for communicating at sea. MUSIC TELEVISION 13.3) The individual and Mass Media 1) HOW MEDIA MESSAGES AFFECT THE INDIVIDUAL > The linear model emphasizes the effect of the media messages on the individual. >Too simplistic to account for multiple ways people respond. > Highlights power and influence of media messages > People are active agents > Seek and reject media messages. > Mass media effects > Study of effects has undergone significant changes > Today’s focus includes: Media research Effects of media images of violence Promoting health through media messages 2) HOW INDIVIDUALS CHOOSE MEDIA MESSAGES > Scholars interested in the effect of media text must identify the audience likely to attend to this text > Media choices have increased considerably > Researchers want to know what we choose and how we choose. >Selective exposure >People choose mediated messages that confirm their beliefs. >Interpret messages to validate their views. >Critics say they don’t inhabit a media environment that will challenge their view. >Uses and gratifications >People choose media to fulfill particular needs that they hace 1) Information 2) Personal identity 3) Integration and social interaction 4) Entertainment >Cultural values in media consumption >Understanding why people seek specific media texts important from economic perspective >Difficult to predict which texts will become popular. >Media producers do have information on trends. 3) HOW INDIVIDUALS RESIST MEDIA MESSAGES > Reasons we resist media messages > Individual taste > Negative portrayals of our views, interests, and identity > Resist power of media to shape our identities. 13.4) The individual, Mass Media, and society 1) CONFIRMING SOCIAL IDENTITIES > Mediated messages and images influence understanding of social identities > Create, shape, or enforce certain identities as normal or valued. >Content analysis >Textual analyses (more detailed fewer media texts) >Trends evident between media consumption and various social identities. 2) UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD > Media can distort images of faraway places. >AgendaSetting Capacity >Power if media to influence what we think A) Cultivation theory Effect of cumulative exposure to media projecting a single message of a biased view. B) Media hegemony Process by which we consent to social constructions based on what the media portrays 3) Interpreting Media Events > Media Event >Occasions/catastrophes interrupting regular programming >Our interpretation is shaped by the attention given by media/ >Focus on important rituals while promoting a variety of less obvious messages. >Invite people to view the world in a particular way. 4) MONITORING MEDIA VIOLENCE >Effects on children >Increase aggressiveness and antisocial behavior >Increase of fear of becoming a victim >Leads to less sensitivity to violence >Leads to an increased appetite for violence >VShip Blocks programs receiving certain ratings for content. >Federal Communications Commission >Oversight on appropriateness in major network channels’ content. >Fines typically for indecency, not violence. 5) Analyzing Media Economics > Political Economy >Culture industries operate for profit in U.S. >Culture industries operate as nonprofit in other countries > Globalization sparks transnational television networks >China’s stateowned mass media seeing rise in independent competition >Mergers and acquisitions affect programming MEDIA ACTIVISM >Practice of communicating displeasure in programming and initiating change. >Hays code Established rules for media content in accordance with wholesome values >MPAA Motion Picture Association of America Initiated movie content in the 60’s to ensure people were informed of the content rating MEDIA ACTIVISM FOCUSES ON 5 AREAS 1) Impact of media images on children 2) Perpetuation of distortions or stereotypes 3) Structural issues in media industries 4) Identifying and promoting media texts that offer alternative views 5) Communicating ethical concerns and messages to a wide audience. 13.6) Becoming a More Effective Media Consumer 1) Be an Active Agent a) Seek out media that meets your needs b) Think about the basis for your media choices 2) Broaden Your Media Horizons a) Seek a range of views on world events 3) Talk Back a) Question content, framing, ethical implications
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