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2120 FILM Feb 3

by: Kay Patel

2120 FILM Feb 3 FILM 2120

Kay Patel

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About this Document

Covers all of the editing basics and systems
Introduction to Cinema
Dr. Seiving
Class Notes
Film 2120 Feb 3
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kay Patel on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FILM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Seiving in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cinema in Fine arts at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
II. Editing Basics: Transitions Between Shots 1. Cut ­ instantaneous shot change, visible on film itself, different temporal relation  between shots 2. Dissolve ­ when you briefly superimpose one shot on to the next, one shot fades  out while another shot is fading in 3. Wipe ­ shot A is replaced by shot B gradually, but there’s a boundary  4. Fade ­ fade in → dark to light; fade out → light to dark II. Editing Basics: Relation Between Shots A. Graphic Relations 1. Graphic Match ­ linking of shots through graphic similarity 1. Lonely Villa ­ graphic match used to create a link between  husband and wife during crisis; they’re both pointing 2. M ­ arm motion thing between gangsters and cops; used to signify  that maybe they’re not so different in their approach 3. John Woo’s The Killer ­ both guys are sitting, smoking, shooting  of the gun; shows that the detective is starting to feel for his  nemesis 4. Can have a thematic function; use to suggest parallels? b. Graphic Contrast ­ changes come from final shot of scene A to the first  shot of scene, contrast of graphics through graphic dissimilarity; cut from  light to dark 1. Speed ­ Howard blows up the bomb and the calm of Howard and  Jack receiving their medals, monochromatic versus more color in  the next shot B. Rhythmic Relations a. Accelerated Editing ­ editing by cutting together shots of shorter and  shorter length b. Can be found in music video ­ timed to the rhythm of the beat C. Temporal Relations ­ usually linear, take place in chronological order a. Order (flashback, flashforward) 1. Flashback ­ shot change that represents a change to an earlier time 2. Flashforward ­ future change in story than back to present; more  common in experimental films and art cinema b. Duration (temporal ellipsis, temporal expansion) 1. Temporal Ellipsis ­ parts of events or story are omitted that aren’t  relevant to the plot 1. 2001 ­ dawn of man → space station 2. Temporal Expansion ­ event or action is prolonged than it  actually would; rare in Hollywood films; tends to be more  noticeable and intrusive 1. slow motion and cross­cutting b. Frequency (temporal overlap) 1. Temporal Overlap ­ show event more than once; shot showing  the same story action repeated in succession  1. Cleo from 5 to 7 ­ she’s walking down the stairs 3 times 2. Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind ­ running through  snow 3 times → reason for temporal overlap because this  happy moment is representative of their future relationship, intended primarily authorial expressivity; importance of  repetition  B. Spatial Relations and the continuity editing system a. Disorienting the viewer is the last thing Hollywood filmmakers want to do 1. They don’t want to draw attention the the editing b. Continuity Editing System ­ dedicated to telling story smoothly and  accurately 1. Goal is to orient the viewer with respect to space and time without  calling attention to the editing 2. By being invisible, it keeps the audience focused on the characters  and the story 3. I. Spatial Relations and the Continuity Editing System A. His Girl Friday (Hawks, 1940) and continuity editing 1. Establishing Shot ­ widest framing in a scene; shot that lays out  environment of the locale spatially 1. Subsequent shot will present a closer view of the action b. 180 Degrees Rule (axis of shot) ­ You can draw an imaginary line from  one character to another; half circle area where camera can be; you  preserve consistent screen direction  c. Screen Direction  d. Cut In ­ cut into a tighter framing that is done in order to highlight  narrative detail  e. Shot/Reverse Shot­ shots are edited together so we get alternating views  of the character; when characters converse, we need to see their faces;  look over character’s shoulders to see other character’s reactions 1. Hard to do shot reverse shot with three people...have people move  closer to complete the shot b. Match On Action ­ film editing and video editing techniques where the  editor cuts from one shot to another view that matches the first shot’s  action  c. Master Shot ­ editor, during postproduction, will edit together the shots  for the shot/reverse shot B. The Birds (Hitchcock, 1963) and the Kuleshov Effect (Lev Kuleshov; actor’s  facial expression remained the same, but the juxtaposition of shots guide audience reaction a. Kuleshov Effect 1. Audience have spatial hold 2. Meaning of each shot depends on the shot around it; editing creates a context b. Offscreen Space ­ actions off the frame that would be recording  c. Eyeline match v. POV shot 1. Eyeline ­ doesn’t replicate a character’s POV; character looking  offscreen followed by what the character sees; helps us understand  the location  2. POV ­ what the character sees b. “Creative geography” ­ join shots to create and artificial landscape; create  an illusion of continuous time and space I. Aims of the Continuity Editing System  A. Clear spatial relationships a. Audience should know where characters are in relation to each other,  know the time relation, each cut should move the narrative along, cuts  should not call attention to themselves B. Clear temporal relationship C. Style is subordinate to narrative D. Editing should be “invisible”


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