Chapter 2 notes
Chapter 2 notes PSY 100-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alessa Rulli on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-002 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Smita Ward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Chapter 2- Biological Psychology 1) What is Biological Psychology? a) Also known as biopsychology i) The study of Biological behavior influences on thinking, emotion, and behavior . ii) Combination of both Psychology and Biology 2) History and Overview of the Nervous System a) Brain weights about 3 pounds b) Long history of interest in the brain i) Trepanning: Cutting a hole through the skull (1)Might have been involved in an early form of brain surgery ii) Ancient Egyptians threw away the brain during mummification iii) Aristotle believed the brain was just a cooling unit for blood (1)Did not believe it was important iv) Plato and Hippocrates believed the brain was the seat of the mind (1)“where the mind is located” v) Galen- treated roman gladiators (1)Used the effects of head injuries as evidence that the brain is the seat of the intellect. (2)Early application of the scientific method 3) The Mind- Body Problem a) What is the relationship between the mind and brain? i) We don’t know if the mind and brain are the same or two different things b) Plasticity of the brain- some brain functions for the brain can br altered by experiences i) Cognitive- behavioral therapy ii) Learning to play the violin 4) Cells of the Nervous System a) Neurons: 3 parts i) Individual cells of the nervous system ii) Cell body or soma—performs the necessarily functions to keep the cell alive iii) Dendrites—receive incoming information from other cells iv) Axons—Transports outgoing information to the other cells v) Nerve impulses, action potentials, spikes—these are the outgoing messages from the axon vi) Afferent (or sensory) neurons—receive information and then give it to the brain and spinal cord vii) Efferent (motor neurons)—take outgoing messages from the brain and spinal cord to your muscles and glands viii) Interneurons—these are the “connection” neurons ix) Bell-Magendie Law—stimulate anterior root, then will see muscle movement; no muscle movement if stimulate posterior root (however, this root is involved in sensation feelings like pain) x) Mueller’s Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies—the sensation we feel is dependent on which nerves carry the information b) Glia Cells—make up the majority of the nervous system i) Oligodendrocyte—produces myelin that wraps around axons in CNS (1)Myelin is white (white matter of the brain) (2)Cell bodies—gray matter of brain (3)Myelin—insulates and speeds nerve impulses down the axon ii) Schwann cells—another type of glial cell iii) Produce myelin around axons in the PNS iv) Multiple sclerosis (1)Destroy myelin c) Astrocytes i) During prenatal development, guide the growth of neurons ii) They hold neurons in place iii) Deliver nutrients and remove waste d) Microglia i) Remove dead neurons ii) Involved in how the immune system responds 5) The Firing of Action Potentials Down the Neuron a) Resting State- Inside of the neuron is negatively charged when compared to the outside of the Neuron i) Resting membrane potential—70 millivolts b) Ready, Aim, Fire i) Threshold of excitation (generally, -55 mv) ii) For information that excites the neuron, it lets in more of the positively charged sodium outside the cell membrane c) Stimulus Intensity i) All action potentials are the same size- not lager for larger stimuli ( all or none law0 ii) Intensity of stimulation- rate of firing of the neuron and number of Neurons firing back 6) Synaptic Transmission—What happens at the end of neuron to the AP? a) What is the synapse? b) Communication between neurons is chemical and not electrical c) Re-uptake of neurotransmitters or chemicals d) Enzymes destroy neurotransmitter 7) Neurotransmitters a) Glutamate—primary excitatory chemical in CNS—involved in learning and memory b) GABA—primary inhibitory chemical in CNS—relaxing and calming effect c) Dopamine—role with Parkinson’s disease and paranoid schizophrenia d) Serotonin—Low levels involved in depression e) Norepinephrine—Low levels related to depression; higher levels related to arousal; very high levels related to anxiety disorders 8) The Endocrine System a) Pituitary Gland—sometimes referred to as “the master gland” b) Hypothalamus—“master” to the master gland 9) Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System—nerves throughout the body (not including brain and spinal cord) 10) Somatic Nervous System—Sensations we perceive and voluntary movements we make a) Autonomic Nervous System—carries sensory information from internal organs and glands to CNS and from CNS to internal organs and glands i) Sympathetic Nervous System—arousal ii) Parasympathetic NS—relaxes the body 11) The Central Nervous System a) The Spinal Cord i) Vertebrae—protects the spinal cord ii) Meninges—Protects the brain and spinal cord iii) 31 pairs of nerves on the spinal cord iv) Reflexes controlled by spinal cord b) The Brain i) Localization of Function and Phrenology—Gall and Phrenology ii) The Hindbrain (medulla, pons, cerebellum) (1)Medulla—important life maintaining functions such as respiration (2)Pons—involved with arousal and sleep (3)Cerebellum—coordinated movement iii) The Midbrain (reticular formation, substantia nigra) (1)Reticular formation—involved in arousal (2)Substantia nigra—smooth, rapid movement; area implicated in Parkinson’s disease iv) The Forebrain (1)Thalamus—sensory information “relay station” (2)Hypothalamus—involved with hunger, sex, directs the pituitary gland (3)Hippocampus—formation of new memories (4)Amygdala—very much involved with emotional functioning (5)Basal ganglia-involved in movement and posture (6)Nucleus accumbens—brain’s “pleasure center” (7)Cortex—involved in many different activities such as planning and self-control v) Four different Lobes of the Brain (1)Frontal lobes—prefrontal cortex (executive functions) (2)Temporal lobes—auditory cortex—information processing of auditory information (3)Parietal lobes—somatosensory cortex (touch, pain, temperature) (4)Occipital lobes—primary visual cortex vi) Hemispheric Specialization (1)right and left side of the brain (cross over of information and movement) (2)left side—reading, mathematics (3)right side—spatial skills, music, emotion vii) Investigating the Brain (1)Structural techniques—CAT Scan, MRI (2)Functions of Brain Structures—PET, fMRI viii) Genetics and Behavioral Genetics—influence of genes on behavior (1)Family Association Studies (2)Twin Studies: identical Twins (3)Adoption Studies
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