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by: Ashlee Wilson

Microbioloy Biol 1230

Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3
King-Thom Chung

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About this Document

Microbiology Chapter 2 notes
King-Thom Chung
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1230 at University of Memphis taught by King-Thom Chung in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/10/16
Micro Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Chemistry Chemical Building Blocks Matter all materials that occupy space amp have mass Matter is composed of atoms Atoms simplest form of matter not divisible into simpler substances caed atoms ElementsIsotopes atoms that differ in numbers of protons neutron amp electrons caed elements Atomic number number of protons Mass number number of protons amp neutrons sotopes variant forms of an element that differ in mass number Atomic weight average of the mass numbers of all of the element s isotopic forms Molecules Distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms Combination of atoms Compounds Combination of different kind of atoms which are linked by chemical bonds Chemical bonds when 2 or more atoms share donate or accept electrons 3 types covalent ionic amp hydrogen Atomic structures Proton positively charged Neutron neutral no charge Electron negatively charged Atomic Properties Atomic number number of protons in an atom also determines the place in the periodic table Atomic weight another name for atomic mass Moles mass of substance containing the same number of fundamental units as there are atoms in exactly 12000 g of 12C Chemical Bonds when 2 or more atoms share donate or accept electrons Covalent bonds electrons are shaped among atoms Ionic bonds electrons are transferred to one atom forming positively charged cations and negatively charged anions Hydrogen bonds weak bonds between hydrogen and other atoms Chemical Reaction Catabolic biochemical Biochemical reactions that break down molecules in metabolism Anabolic process involving a seguence of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units usually requiring input of energy E in the process Solution a mixture of one or more substances called solutes dispersed in a dissolving medium called a solvent Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties Most biological activities occur in aqueous waterbased solutions Important Biological Molecules SolutionsColloids AcidsBases Acid ph of 06 7 is neutral Base ph of 814 Macromolecules Ca rbohyd rates are monosaccharides meaning one sugar Lipids fatty molecule Nonpolar Proteins form the basis of living tissues Nucleic Acidsconsist of either one or two long chains of repeating units called nucleotides which consist of a nitrogen base attached to a sugar phosphate All but lipids are formed by polymerization Bond into chains called polymers Carbohydrates Sugars CH20n Monomer monosaccharide glucose amp fructose Polymer polysaccharide starch cellulose amp glycogen Subunits linked by glycosidic bonds Functions structural support nutrient amp energy Lipids Fats Not soluble in water Long complex hydrocarbon chains triglycerides phospholipids in membranes steroids like cholesterol Proteins shapers of life predominant molecules in cells monomer amino acids 20 polymer peptide polypeptide protein subunits linked by peptide bonds fold into very speci c 3dimensional shapes function perform most of the activities in a cell enzymes transport structure etc Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Nucleic acids DNA amp RNA Monomer nucleotide DNA ATCG Double helix hereditary material RNA AUCG organize protein synthesis


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