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Psych 410 Chapter 1 notes

by: Molly Hart

Psych 410 Chapter 1 notes PSYC 410 002

Molly Hart
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About this Document

These notes are all from chapter 1!
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Jeffrey C. Schatz
Class Notes
Psychology, Abnormal psychology, biology model, Chapter 1, history of psychology




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Hart on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 410 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Jeffrey C. Schatz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
Psychology 410 notes: Part 1:  Abnormal psych:  Psychopathology: Not likes; scientific study of mental health; a lot of different  fields to understand mental health.  Mental disorders (psychological disorders): Some people have a condition; physical (diabetes).  Mental health: a level of mental health; not black and white; continuum of health.  Abnormal behavior is due to the psychological disorder o Psychological disorders come from: behavioral. Psychological. Or  biological dysfunction  Who decides what is abnormal? o Mental health professionals/ scientists o Society o Acquaintances (family and friends)/ o Self defined. o Example: Adult baby is abnormal because society demes it to be. He  thinks it is normal. o Cultural norms  Society deciding what behavior is normal.  Things are abnormal when people break norms or boundaries.  Cultural definitions o “Mental Illness”  A medical/disease model  Mental illness—Behavioral syndrome—Abnormal behavior  Why someone should seek help? o Dysfunction/Disability o Distress o Dangerousness (to self and others) o Extremely deviant  o Mental health is a continuum  Resilient—Normal—Abnormal  o Mental health and mental illness are separate things.  Mental health vs. Physical health  Under treatment of mental illness o 60% with a current mental illness receive no medical treatment. o 40% with a severe mental illness were receiving no treatment. o Funding is more prevalent in the federal government is for physical  diseases, not mental illness.  o Understanding of mental illness has been increasing yet stigma has stayed  the same over decades of time.  Why mental health is important o Can hurt your physical health and lower your quality in life.  o Expensive to society o Don’t get a lot of people into treatment yet we are spending a lot of  money. o Invest a lot of money in cancer o We developed cancer treatment and made it seem “curable” which  changed the stigma.  o People with depression can develop cardiovascular disease.  Supernatural causes o Mental illness is due to supernatural causes o Not true o “Moral standing with God o Trephination/Trepanning  Skulls with holes in them; circular; uniform  Explanation: treatment for unusual behavior o Moral failure: Salem, Mass; witch hunt  If they had more faith in God, then they wouldn’t have mental  illness.   NEGATIVE STIGMA  Biological causes o Something is wrong with the physical body, not supernatural. o Disease model  Most common model   “Pathogen” leads to disease.   Pathogen may trigger a genetic health problem.  Advantages:   Defines specific groups of people to be studied  Fits classic research methods  Reliable  Has benefitted a large number of people  Reduces some stigma  Disadvantages:  Stigma  Labeling  De­emphasizes social cultural factors  Ignores aspects of positive health/wellness  May not be valid for all conditions o Constitutional model  Biological resiliency of different organs/ systems  A weakness of systems in you body.  A weak immune system can cause an Autoimmune disease o Modern Era Biological causes:  Specific brain­behavior relationships  Neuroscience with behavior  Early 1800’s: dominant view of brain was just a general  organ.  Phrenologists vs. Nonlocalization  o Phrenologists focused on how your skull was  shaped (pseudoscience). o Higher up people would get skulls measured to see  what they had a lot (honesty hard working) o Then they would look at prisoners and measure  their skulls to see traits (lazy, stupid). o Came up with a map to tell you positive things you  had in your brain. o Nonlocalizationists focused on the brain as a  general organ o Paul Broca  BROCA’S AREA and “tan” in 1861  He can understand speech but couldn’t  produce speech  “tan” died and Paul Broca examines it.  Specific organic causes from mental disorders  General paresis o Condition people developed with was something  like Alzheimer’s. o People would start to lose motor functions o Thinking and reasoning would slowly decrease.  Syphilis and general paresis o identified in 1908­1913 o infection gets into the brain and eats away at it. o Treatment begins around 1917.  Genetic theories of behavior  Genes determine characteristics of living things (traits).  Gregor Mendel   Extended to behavioral traits  Sir Francis Galton  3 Major models:  Genetic determinism o Not correct o Eugenics  Forced sterilization  The Holocaust  Gene X Environment=Behavior o Genes have influence over behavior and so does  your environment. o Not specific  Epigenetics o “Beyond genetics” o Environment /experiences change the expression of  our genetic code. o Changes in the expression of genes impact the  genetic code/ expression of offspring.  Other terms: o Genotype Eugenics o Phenotype o Endo­phenotype o Polygenetic disorder o Gene­environment correlation  Effective biological therapies:  1930’s­ Convulsive disorders (seizures) and psychosis.  1930’s­ Brain lesions in the frontal lobes were reported to  have “calming” effects on agitated animals  1950’s­ Thorazine was discovered to help with psychotic  symptoms.  John Fulton: Comparative Physiology o Studied animals o Studied the frontal lobes and motor behavior in  nonhuman primates. o How motor behavior is organized in the brain. o Informal lecture in 1935 on 2 chimps “Becky” and  “Lucy”.  “Lucy” was too hard to manage.  Tried to bite people  Fulton put a lesion in the brain, which  calmed her down completely.  “Becky” was semi normal.  Egas Moniz took Fulton’s information and is convinced it  has human application. o Prefrontal Lobotomy o He didn’t study the patients for very long o No one knew how horrible it was for people,  especially how they were doing it. o Leukotome—Get into the brain through the eye to  cut into the frontal lobe. o Calms people down: lose personality, organize  behavior, and much more; Psychological deficit.  o Replacing psychiatric problem with brain injury.  Walter Freeman o Brought Lobotomy to United States  DISTAL CAUSEPROXIMAL CAUSECONDITION X  Example:  o Severe headaches  o Brain tumor as a child o Thought the tumor was coming back o Denied psychological stress o No biological/Proximal cause o A girl in her life was harassing her which caused  stress which caused her headaches. o STRESS—BIOLOGICAL—HEADACHES   Psychosocial Historical and Current Models of Abnormal Behavior: Part 2  Psychology as a clinical science o Discovered treatments for symptoms, then developed theories about the  causes. o Treatment focused o What needs to be changed? Personality traits.   Psychology as a lab science o Developed theories of behavior, then devised treatment for symptoms.  o What needs to be changed? Behavioral symptoms   EX: if you are washing your hands 100 times a day, what can be  done to make you stop doing it? o Immediate behavior change.  Clinical Science: early roots o Mesmer and mesmerism  Invisible magnetic fluid  What the magnetics get out of order, you need magnetics to realign the magnetic fluid in your brain.  People claimed he cured them.  Boosted his credibility  Curing people through the power of suggestion. o Hypnosis  Charcot  Bernheim  Breuer  Clinician  Seeing a patient—Bertha Pappenheim  Periods of time without vision  Maybe seizures?  Experimented with Hypnotism  Psychoanalysis o She wanted to just talk about her life o Stress relief  o Catharsis o Problems with Psychoanalysis  Untestable theories  Unusual disorders  Case study methods o Freud  Psychoanalysis  Not many original ideas, but pulled concepts into theories.  All the things that cause abnormal behaviors, are the things that  cause normal behavior. o Later developments  Psychodynamically—inspired approaches  Attachment theory  Interpersonal therapy  Humanistic Psychology o Sociological causes  Humanitarian movements of the 18  and 19  century  Mental hospitals were overcrowded and dirty, which worsened  mental disorders.  Social conditions influenced the mental health.  Movement failed  Major movements o Moral management   People needed to be treated with respect  They need jobs to keep people moving  If they get out of the hospital, they may be able to do it out in  society. o Mental Hygiene Movement  Quiet and peaceful place  Calm environment  Mental health should improve  People in this movement got into eugenics.  Psychology as a Lab science o Pavlov: Learning  Classical condition  Generalization  Someone who is afraid of snakes may also be afraid of a  picture of a snake because they generalized.  o Skinner: Behaviorism  Operant conditioning  Punishment and reward  Reinforcement is whatever one does that increases the rate  of a behavior. o Ex: I hit someone to make sure they do their  homework.  Punishment is whatever one does that decreases the rate of a behavior. o Ex: I give money to someone to stop being violent.  Extinction occurs when a behavior decreases by removing  all reinforcement. o Cognitive Viewpoint  Nothing is clear cut; it is ambiguous  Ex: Fight or flight stress reaction “I’m gonna die” Panic o Wundt: Perception and cognition o Social Psychology  Social causes of stress  Social class/ social hierarchies  Stereotyping and prejudice  Rapid change  Urbanization o Cultural Psychology  Cultural factors  Belief systems, values o Sociology


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