Psych 410 Chapter 1 notes
Psych 410 Chapter 1 notes PSYC 410 002
Popular in Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Hart on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 410 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Jeffrey C. Schatz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Psych 410 Chapter 1 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/10/16
Psychology 410 notes: Part 1: Abnormal psych: Psychopathology: Not likes; scientific study of mental health; a lot of different fields to understand mental health. Mental disorders (psychological disorders): Some people have a condition; physical (diabetes). Mental health: a level of mental health; not black and white; continuum of health. Abnormal behavior is due to the psychological disorder o Psychological disorders come from: behavioral. Psychological. Or biological dysfunction Who decides what is abnormal? o Mental health professionals/ scientists o Society o Acquaintances (family and friends)/ o Self defined. o Example: Adult baby is abnormal because society demes it to be. He thinks it is normal. o Cultural norms Society deciding what behavior is normal. Things are abnormal when people break norms or boundaries. Cultural definitions o “Mental Illness” A medical/disease model Mental illness—Behavioral syndrome—Abnormal behavior Why someone should seek help? o Dysfunction/Disability o Distress o Dangerousness (to self and others) o Extremely deviant o Mental health is a continuum Resilient—Normal—Abnormal o Mental health and mental illness are separate things. Mental health vs. Physical health Under treatment of mental illness o 60% with a current mental illness receive no medical treatment. o 40% with a severe mental illness were receiving no treatment. o Funding is more prevalent in the federal government is for physical diseases, not mental illness. o Understanding of mental illness has been increasing yet stigma has stayed the same over decades of time. Why mental health is important o Can hurt your physical health and lower your quality in life. o Expensive to society o Don’t get a lot of people into treatment yet we are spending a lot of money. o Invest a lot of money in cancer o We developed cancer treatment and made it seem “curable” which changed the stigma. o People with depression can develop cardiovascular disease. Supernatural causes o Mental illness is due to supernatural causes o Not true o “Moral standing with God o Trephination/Trepanning Skulls with holes in them; circular; uniform Explanation: treatment for unusual behavior o Moral failure: Salem, Mass; witch hunt If they had more faith in God, then they wouldn’t have mental illness. NEGATIVE STIGMA Biological causes o Something is wrong with the physical body, not supernatural. o Disease model Most common model “Pathogen” leads to disease. Pathogen may trigger a genetic health problem. Advantages: Defines specific groups of people to be studied Fits classic research methods Reliable Has benefitted a large number of people Reduces some stigma Disadvantages: Stigma Labeling Deemphasizes social cultural factors Ignores aspects of positive health/wellness May not be valid for all conditions o Constitutional model Biological resiliency of different organs/ systems A weakness of systems in you body. A weak immune system can cause an Autoimmune disease o Modern Era Biological causes: Specific brainbehavior relationships Neuroscience with behavior Early 1800’s: dominant view of brain was just a general organ. Phrenologists vs. Nonlocalization o Phrenologists focused on how your skull was shaped (pseudoscience). o Higher up people would get skulls measured to see what they had a lot (honesty hard working) o Then they would look at prisoners and measure their skulls to see traits (lazy, stupid). o Came up with a map to tell you positive things you had in your brain. o Nonlocalizationists focused on the brain as a general organ o Paul Broca BROCA’S AREA and “tan” in 1861 He can understand speech but couldn’t produce speech “tan” died and Paul Broca examines it. Specific organic causes from mental disorders General paresis o Condition people developed with was something like Alzheimer’s. o People would start to lose motor functions o Thinking and reasoning would slowly decrease. Syphilis and general paresis o identified in 19081913 o infection gets into the brain and eats away at it. o Treatment begins around 1917. Genetic theories of behavior Genes determine characteristics of living things (traits). Gregor Mendel Extended to behavioral traits Sir Francis Galton 3 Major models: Genetic determinism o Not correct o Eugenics Forced sterilization The Holocaust Gene X Environment=Behavior o Genes have influence over behavior and so does your environment. o Not specific Epigenetics o “Beyond genetics” o Environment /experiences change the expression of our genetic code. o Changes in the expression of genes impact the genetic code/ expression of offspring. Other terms: o Genotype Eugenics o Phenotype o Endophenotype o Polygenetic disorder o Geneenvironment correlation Effective biological therapies: 1930’s Convulsive disorders (seizures) and psychosis. 1930’s Brain lesions in the frontal lobes were reported to have “calming” effects on agitated animals 1950’s Thorazine was discovered to help with psychotic symptoms. John Fulton: Comparative Physiology o Studied animals o Studied the frontal lobes and motor behavior in nonhuman primates. o How motor behavior is organized in the brain. o Informal lecture in 1935 on 2 chimps “Becky” and “Lucy”. “Lucy” was too hard to manage. Tried to bite people Fulton put a lesion in the brain, which calmed her down completely. “Becky” was semi normal. Egas Moniz took Fulton’s information and is convinced it has human application. o Prefrontal Lobotomy o He didn’t study the patients for very long o No one knew how horrible it was for people, especially how they were doing it. o Leukotome—Get into the brain through the eye to cut into the frontal lobe. o Calms people down: lose personality, organize behavior, and much more; Psychological deficit. o Replacing psychiatric problem with brain injury. Walter Freeman o Brought Lobotomy to United States DISTAL CAUSEPROXIMAL CAUSECONDITION X Example: o Severe headaches o Brain tumor as a child o Thought the tumor was coming back o Denied psychological stress o No biological/Proximal cause o A girl in her life was harassing her which caused stress which caused her headaches. o STRESS—BIOLOGICAL—HEADACHES Psychosocial Historical and Current Models of Abnormal Behavior: Part 2 Psychology as a clinical science o Discovered treatments for symptoms, then developed theories about the causes. o Treatment focused o What needs to be changed? Personality traits. Psychology as a lab science o Developed theories of behavior, then devised treatment for symptoms. o What needs to be changed? Behavioral symptoms EX: if you are washing your hands 100 times a day, what can be done to make you stop doing it? o Immediate behavior change. Clinical Science: early roots o Mesmer and mesmerism Invisible magnetic fluid What the magnetics get out of order, you need magnetics to realign the magnetic fluid in your brain. People claimed he cured them. Boosted his credibility Curing people through the power of suggestion. o Hypnosis Charcot Bernheim Breuer Clinician Seeing a patient—Bertha Pappenheim Periods of time without vision Maybe seizures? Experimented with Hypnotism Psychoanalysis o She wanted to just talk about her life o Stress relief o Catharsis o Problems with Psychoanalysis Untestable theories Unusual disorders Case study methods o Freud Psychoanalysis Not many original ideas, but pulled concepts into theories. All the things that cause abnormal behaviors, are the things that cause normal behavior. o Later developments Psychodynamically—inspired approaches Attachment theory Interpersonal therapy Humanistic Psychology o Sociological causes Humanitarian movements of the 18 and 19 century Mental hospitals were overcrowded and dirty, which worsened mental disorders. Social conditions influenced the mental health. Movement failed Major movements o Moral management People needed to be treated with respect They need jobs to keep people moving If they get out of the hospital, they may be able to do it out in society. o Mental Hygiene Movement Quiet and peaceful place Calm environment Mental health should improve People in this movement got into eugenics. Psychology as a Lab science o Pavlov: Learning Classical condition Generalization Someone who is afraid of snakes may also be afraid of a picture of a snake because they generalized. o Skinner: Behaviorism Operant conditioning Punishment and reward Reinforcement is whatever one does that increases the rate of a behavior. o Ex: I hit someone to make sure they do their homework. Punishment is whatever one does that decreases the rate of a behavior. o Ex: I give money to someone to stop being violent. Extinction occurs when a behavior decreases by removing all reinforcement. o Cognitive Viewpoint Nothing is clear cut; it is ambiguous Ex: Fight or flight stress reaction “I’m gonna die” Panic o Wundt: Perception and cognition o Social Psychology Social causes of stress Social class/ social hierarchies Stereotyping and prejudice Rapid change Urbanization o Cultural Psychology Cultural factors Belief systems, values o Sociology
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'