Revised Study Guide
Revised Study Guide PSYCH 3240
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-3 PSYCH 3240 *Chapter 1- What is Biopsychology? -Neuroscience: study of the nervous system -Biopsychology: study of the relationship between body and behavior -Model: proposed mechanism for how something works -Mind-Body Problem: what is the mind and how does it relate to the brain The mind is a collection of things that the brain does; it does not actually exist. -Monsim: the mind and the body is created of the same thing a) Materialistic Monism: the body, mind and everythin g are physical b) Dualism: separates the mind and body -Descartes: French Philosopher who explained how ,pavement is produced -Explained brain’s activity using the hydraulic model and concluded that animal spirits ran through the body to control it -Galvani, Fritsch, Hitzig performed many experiments that showed that nerves were operated by “electricity.” -Hemholtz measured speed of conduction in nerves and knew that nerves operated electrically Localization Issue: -Determining that specific functions are carried out by different parts of the brain -Phrenology: brain function determined in specific areas -Equipotentiality: brain function determined by extent of damage Nature vs. Nurture -Gene: transmits characteristics and directs cell processes -Chromosomes: 23 pairs (46 total) located in the nucleus -Female: XX Male: XY -Zygote: fertilized egg -Embryo: first 8 weeks -Fetus: after 8 weeks -DNA: genetic information -Dominant and Recessive Alleles -Genotypes: combination of genes Phenotypes: the exposed characteristic -Homozygous: AA/aa Heterozygous: Aa -Polygenic: characterizes determined by many genes -X-Linked: characteristic on the X chromosome of an unpaired gene ; affect more males than females Genes and Behavior -Charles Darwin -Human Genome Project -Children share ½ of their genes with each of their parents. -Natural Selection Heredity and Environment -Heritability: percentage of the difference within a certain characteristic caused by genetic influences . Is greatest for height. If everyon e all had the same genes, then the heritability would be 0%. -“We influence dispositions, not destinies.” This is because genes only have partial influence. -Vulnerability: *Chapter 2- Communication Within the Nervous System Neurons: -Specialized cells that receive information and send it to other cells -Carry information within in the brain and throughout the rest of the body. -about 100 million neurons in the brain 1. Motor Neurons (output neurons): a. Receive information from the other neurons b. Carries information to muscle or gland cells 2. Sensory Neurons (input neurons): a. Receives a particular type of sensory information b. Carries information to other neurons 3. Interneuron a. Connects one neuron to another in a particular part of the central nervous system (C NS) Glial Cells: -cells that provide structural and functional support for neurons 1. Oligodendrocytes: build myelin around axons in the brain and spinal chord (CNS) ( The membranes of most cells are made of fat) 2. Schwann Cells: build myelin around axons in th e peripheral nervous Neural Membrane -critical for the neurons ability to carry information -consists of a phospholipid bilayer where protein molecules are sometimes embedded. -Head: Hydrophilic (attracted to water) -Tail: Hydrophobic (repelled by wate r) -Proteins are made of a sequence of amino acids Protein Molecules 1. Channels: molecules move down a gradient 2. Pumps: molecules are pushed against the gradient Resting Potential: difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest. more potassium inside the neuron and more sodium outside the neuron Sodium Potassium Pump(Na+/K+) Pump: repeatedly moves 3 Na+ out of the neuron and 2 K+ inside the neuron at rest. K+ Ions: attracted inside by Electrical Gradient , and attracted outside by the Concentration Gradient. • Concentration Gradient is slightly stronger than the Electrical Gradient, but they are basically in balance with each other. • These two forces are independent of each other, but they act at the same ti me. Na+ Ions: attracted inside by BOTH Electrical Gradient and Concentration Gradient. • Electrical gradient is slightly stronger than the Concentration Gradient, but they are basically in balance with each other. • Na+ would rush inside if Na+ channels were open. *Hyperpolarization: reserved for any increase in polarization (going away from 0 ) *Depolarization: reserved for any decrease in polarization (going towards) 1. Massive influx of sodium into the neuron 2. Most of the potassium channels start opening (not as rapidly as the sodium channels) and potassium moves outside 3. Sodium Channels shut close and no more sodium can enter the neuron. (by now, the potassium channels are fully open) 4. Now lots of potassium leaving the neuron. Sodium channels are still closed. 5. Then there is some hyperpolarization caused by potassium channels starting to close slowly which causes excess leaking outside of potassium. Neuron is loosing even more positive charge and becoming more negative. 6. Pumps open and the normal distribution is acquired. *Absolute Refractory Period: The neuron does not react to any stimulus because the sodium channels will not open. Lays down a “speed limit” for the neuron in terms of how many times that neuron is able to fire over time. *Relative Refractory Period: Won’t produce an action potential unless the stimulus is stronger than normal. *Rate Law of Action Potentials: Intensity of a stimulus is encoded by the rate of action potentials. *As the stimulus gets stronger, the neuron goes faster. E x: Hearing a louder sound or seeing a brighter light the neurons will fire faster in your brain. *Spontaneous Activity: firing of a neuron in absence of environmental stimulation *Action Potential: you need a passive (graded) potential that will end up ch anging the electrical difference within the membrane *The All or None Law: the height of the action potential curve is constant. Graded Potential: -amplitude depends on the intensity of the stimulus (unlike action potentials) and don’t go very far Axon Hillock: • where the axon comes out of the cell body. • first region of the neuron where you can detect an action potential. 1) There is a massive influx of positive charges, which sets of massive depolarization currents going left and right. The next region of membrane is depolarized and reaches threshold. Then an influx of sodium goes into the second part of the membrane. 2) This next section was at rest, but is now experiencing the up phase of action potential. The first section is now permeable to potassium a nd experiencing the down phase of action potential. 3) The process keeps repeating over and over. *Myelination and Conduction Speed of Action Potentials 1) Increase the neuron width a. Squid have axons that are huge and allow them to speed up their action potenti als. 2) Myelin produced by glial cells (oligodendrocytes and Schwann) a. Nodes of Ranvier: uncovered parts of the axon not covered in the myelin sheath. **Movement of Signal through Neuron Covered in Myelin: 1. Na+ channels open (action potential) 2. Depolarization spreads within the exon very quickly. 3. At the next node, the action potential is triggered. 4. This continues to happen at each node as the action potential jumps from one to another. *The graded potentials happen within each myelin sheath. *Saltatory (Jumping) Conduction: 15 times faster and a lot cheaper than in un-myelinated axons *Communication between Neurons -Presynaptic Neuron -Synapse -Presynaptic Terminal (Button) -Synaptic Cleft -Postsynaptic Neuron *In most cases the signal travels as a che mical signal. Chemical Synapses -Presynaptic Membrane -Vesicles -Neurotransmitter Molecules -Calcium (Ca2+) Calcium channels embedded in the presynaptic membrane, and are closed at the resting state. When an action potential comes down, the channels OPEN! Exocytosis 1. Calcium coming in is the first step of the long chemical process of transfer between neurons. 2. The vesicles move toward the membrane and converge with it 3. Neurotransmitters released into the cleft. ( -70 mV at this point) (more sodium is outsi de than in. More potassium is in than out. ) *On the postsynaptic membrane there are channels that are NOT voltage activated. *They open if one or more molecules attach to them ( Lock and Key process) *Polarization begins changing as the channels are opene d and closed. 4. Now the postsynaptic neuron is active. Sodium channels open and sodium (Na+) starts to go in and membrane potential starts depolarization (moving toward 0 mV). a. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP): postsynaptic membrane becomes partiall y depolarized. i. Most likely, the action potential will occur at the post -synaptic neuron or the axon hillock and there is a higher rate of firing. Inhibition -Now assume the potassium channels open up and the potassium flows out. -The membrane potential moves away from the threshold and shows hyperpolarization. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP): postsynaptic membrane exhibits hyperpolarization. *It is unlikely that the action potential will occur at the axon hillock or the post -synaptic neuron and there is a decreased rate of firing. Postsynaptic Integration a) Most neurons receive EPSPs and IPSPs from about 1000 other neurons. b) SPSPs and IPSPs combine at the axon hillock c) EPSP and IPSP are graded potentials i. Temporal Summation ii. Spatial Summation Type of Synapses: 1. Axosomatic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the soma of another neuron. 2. Axodendritic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron. 3. Axoaxonic Synapse: Located between the terminal button of one neuron and the terminal button of another neuron. a. The neurotransmitters form the one axon can affect the membranes permeability to calcium on the other neuron b. Presynaptic Excitation: an increase in the release i n neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron. c. Presynaptic Inhibition: a decrease in the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters *Chemical signals that are released by one neuron at the synapse and that affect other neurons. *Know the table of neurotransmitters found at the end of chapter two. *GABA is important (Hint-Hint) *Know most prevalent and what they do. Drug: a chemical that comes from the outside that has an affect on your nervous system. Depending on th e effects you classify the drug as an agonist or an antagonist a) Agonist: a chemical that mimics or increases the effect of a neurotransmitter b) Antagonist: a chemical that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitte Neurotransmitter Function Acetylcholine Transmitter at muscles Monamines Serotonin Mood, sleep, arousal, aggression, depression Dopamine Movement control Norepinephrine Released during stress; increases attentiveness and arousal Epinephrine Plays a minor role as a neurotransmitter in the brain . Related to norepinephrine Amino Acids Glutamate Excitatory; involved in learning GABA Inhibitory; receptors respond to alcohol Glycine Inhibitory; Peptides Endorphins Reduce pain; enhance reinforcement Substance P Pain Neuropeptide Y Initiates eating; metabolic shifts Gas Nitric Oxide Influences the presynaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters *Chapter 3- The Organization and Functions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS): Made up of the brain and the spinal chord and wh ere most of the processing takes place. CNS is made up of one type of neurons called interneurons. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): made up of cranial nerves and spinal nerves. Cranial Nerves: connect to the brain Spinal Nerves: connect to the spinal ch ord *A neuron is a single cell. *A nerve is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the PNS. *A tract is a bundle of axons of many neurons in the CNS. Anatomical Direction of the Nervous System *Neuraxis: imaginary line drawn through the center of the CNS f rom the bottom of the spinal chord to the front of the forebrain. The Brain Horizontal Section Sagital Section Coronal Section Development 3 WEEKS: Part of the tube grows at different rates. You can see the 3 major portions emerging. Forebrain, Midbrain, hindbrain. 7 WEEKS: cranial nerves begin to form. 11 WEEKS: the forebrain has taken over in terms of development. The other parts aren’t developing as fast. At BIRTH: the hindbrain has expanded. All three parts expanded at different rates, so that they end up as recognizable organs. Cerebral Hemispheres Cortex 1. Outer surface that is wrinkled with grooves and ridges a. Ridge=gyrus b. Groove=sulcus c. GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER *A very large sulcus is called a fissure. *A central fisher separates the left and right hemispheres. *Clusters of gray mater are called nuclei. Roles of the Lobes 1. Frontal Lobe: a. Precentral Gyrus (Primary Motor Cortex): Controls voluntary movement. One hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, which explains ho w you can have paralysis on one side of the body. Located in front of the Central Sulcus. b. Topographical organization of body muscles. i. Motor Homunculus c. Broca’s Area: i. Controls speech and articulation ii. Grammatical structure iii. Lateralized to the left area iv. Lesion to the right side Broca’s Area is less likely to cause speech issues. Broca’s Aphasia 1. Impaired word production 2. Unimpaired word comprehension d. Prefontal Cortex: Involved in planning, impulse control, and decision making i. Composed of highly sophisticated neural function. ii. Associative cordial region: involved in performing higher level processing iii. “Central Executive” part of the brain 2. Parietal Lobe: a. Postcentral Gyrus (Primary Somatosensory Cortex): Processes skin senses, body positioning. One hemisphere s erves the opposite side of the body b. Topographical Organization c. Association Cortex: i. further sensory information processing ii. Integrates information from other senses iii. Locations of objects in space d. Unilateral Neglect: ignoring objects on the opposite side to the damage. Not a perceptual problem 3. Occipital Lobe: processes visual stimulations i. Primary Visual Cortex 1. Processes simple features (orientation) 2. Topographical organization 4. Temporal Lobe: i. Auditory Cortex: first set of neurons that receive hearing information from the ears. Located at the top part of the temporal lobe ii. Wernicke’s Area : more involved in the comprehensive aspects of speech. iii. Inferior Temporal Cortex: main lower part of the temporal lobe involved in visual identification of certain objects Other Forebrain Structures: a) Cerebral Hemispheres b) Corpus Callosum: large band of myelinated axons c) Thalamus: sensory relation station that relays incoming sensory information to the cortex d) Hypothalamus: Sits under the thalamus and is the hub for fundament al drives a. Specific parts coordinate emotional and motivational functions (sex, eating, emotion) b. Controls the pituitary gland (master gland of the body) which then controls the rest of the endocrine system (hormones) c. Axons of neurons connect the hypothalamu s to the pituitary gland Ventricles: brain cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid and carries materials to the CNS a) 4 total ventricles. 2 lateral ventricles, and 2 other ventricles. b) Technically just cavities in the brain with fluid Midbrain: relatively small area compared to the other two areas a) Tectum (dorsal side): b) Superior Colliculus: vision (eye movement). When neurons are active here, you see nothing at all. Controls eye movements. c) Inferior Colliculus: hearing and location of sounds d) Tegmentum (ventral side): controls movement a. Substania Nigra: Dopamine-producing neurons. Tend to die out because they are overactive. Related with Parkinson’s Disease b. Ventral Tegmental Area: plays the part in the rewarding effects of drugs, food, sex Hindbrain: a) Pons (bridge): sensory neurons pass through on the way to the thalamus. a. Motor neurons pass through between the cortex and cerebellum b. Part of the Reticular Formation (sleep and arousal) b) Cerebellum: involved in motor coordination and balance, cognitive function, motor learning c) Medulla: involved in life-sustaining functions like heart activity and breathing. Lesions in this area are usually fatal very quickly. Spinal Chord: cable of neurons a) carries signals from the brain to muscles and glands b) carries sensory info from the periphery to the brain c) hub for reflect arcs which are neural pathways that produce reflex acts Reflex Arc: Neural pathway that controls the reflex act Reflex Act: simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus (muscle contraction or grand secretion) Ganglion: contains the cell bodies Spinal chord: the neural part Meninges: these membranes wrap spinal chord and brain tightly. Provide structural support and protection. Cerebrospinal fluid between *Spinal chord and backbone are different. ****Vertebrae form the spinal column, which is part of the skeletal system ****Spinal chord is NOT the spinal column. It is part of the nervous system. Blood-Brain Barrier (part of the vascular parts of the body) -Prevents potentially harmful toxins and substances form reaching the CNS. *Not all toxins are stopped by the blood -brain barrier. If it is a fat -soluble toxin, the barrier is useless. *Some regions of the brain are actually not covered by the blood -brain membrane. -The Area Postrema (of the Medulla): induces vomiting when some toxins are in the bloodstream. *CNS-Brain and spinal chord *The PNS connects the CNS to the rest of the body. 12 pairs of cranial nerves (come out of the brain stem) 1 pairs of spinal nerves (come out of the spinal chord) Nerve: a bundle of axons PNS Somatic-made of axons (both motor and sensory). Motor neurons: involved in carrying signals from CNS to the muscles. Sensory neurons: bring signals from muscles to the CNS Autonomic- involved in basic regulating body functions, which happens at the level of reflexes. Controls smooth muscles, heart, glands, etc. a) Sympathetic a. Speeds up general body activities (heart beat, respiration, blood pressure and sweat glands) b. Originate from the middle of the spinal chord c. Passes through the sympathetic ganglion chain b) Parasympathetic: a. Slows body processes down b. Originate from the ends of the spinal chord *Both are active all the time to some degree. * Body’s activity represents a balance of the two Development of Nervous System 1) Proliferation a. Neurons divide and multiply at extreme rate 2) Migration a. Neurons move to their final destinations by climbing radial glial cells 3) Circuit Formation a. Neurons send developing axons to make synapses with their target cells b. Growth cone develops at tips of developing axons and move towards final targets using chemical/ molecular signals 4) Circuit Pruning a. Extra neurons that have developed die b. Eliminates large numbers of extra synapses that refines the organization 5) Plasticity a. Ability of synapses to be modified by experiences like learning b. Decreases with age-cortical areas are more likely to retain their plasticity. c. The brain never stops developing Know ALL of this chart
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