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CBIO 2210 Week 4 Notes

by: Elise Weidner

CBIO 2210 Week 4 Notes CBIO2210

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Anatomy > CBIO2210 > CBIO 2210 Week 4 Notes
Elise Weidner

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Class notes from 2/2/16 and 2/4/16 including some images and definitions.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Rob Nichols
Class Notes
Anatomy II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Weidner on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO2210 at University of Georgia taught by Rob Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Anatomy at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
CBIO2210 Class notes 2/2/16 Leukocytes  *For exam #2 go back and look at different classifications of leukocytes*  <1% of total circulating blood volume o Total number of leukocytes in blood should never go over 10,000 o You actually have billions but most leukocytes are not circulating in blood they are in the lymph nodes in the lymphatic system  Lymphocytes named for being found in lymph nodes  Only use blood as transportation  Only true cell, they stay flexible (need to stay around a long time) o Need to live longer than 120days o Ex: if you have chickenpox you will not get it later because your immune system “remembers” and can respond quicker  True cell properties of leukocytes o Diapedesis-used to describe how white blood cells have ability to “walk through walls”  They squeeze through cells by using connections to trigger cells of wall of vessel to relax o Ameboid-motion-can use collagen fibers these to crawl toward where they are going like and amoeba o Chemotaxis- leave trail of chemicals to call other leukocytes for help, the response creates a swelling o Margination- white blood cells move over to side of blood vessel near an infection  Leukopoiesis o 2 major lineages: (2 lineages that can give rise to leukemia)  Myeloid (myelocytic)  Lymphoid (lymphocytic) o Band cells (immature version of leukocyte)  Granular with nucleus like monocyte  Not uncommon outside of marrow, but rare  Large numbers may be indicative of something going wrong in bone marrow  Normal range = 3-5% of total leukocyte count  Have more of a horseshoe shape nucleus  Leukocyte Disorders o Leukocytosis  WBC count >11,000 per microliter or cubic millimeter  Normal response to bacterial infection o Leukopenia  Lowered WBC count  Could be caused by:  Medications o antipsychotics (clonazepam[-old anti-psychotic drug], risperidone) o Chemo (kills cells, creates o Immunosuppressive (anti-inflammatory may drive WBC count down)  Chronic stress o Chronic if lasts longer than 2 or 3 minutes o Stress originally meant to get away from predators o Leukemias  High numbers of immature, ineffective leukocytes of that lineage that do not function properly circulating in blood  Makes people highly susceptible to infections and tumors  Myelocytic or lymphocytic  Acute or chronic  Acute more common in children (respond better to treatment)  Chronic more in the elderly  Death commonly due to hemorrhage and infections  Rx= radiation, antileukemic drugs, stem cell transplants  Platelets o Fragments of megakaryocytes (a cell with a big nucleus that stay in bone marrow)  (not true cells)  Pieces of megakaryocytes that break off into blood stream o Granules contain serotonin(enhances smooth muscle contraction), Ca^2+, Thromboxane A2, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)  Need growth hormone because platelets come into use when something bad happens(usually tissue damage), mitosis needs to be stimulated by PDGF to fill in damaged tissue o Hemostasis (stopping the blood)  Rapid series of reactions to stop blood losses from vessels  Results in “clotting” known as coagulation *look at picture/diagram on slideshow, especially #2 (the role of serotonin)* o Platelet Activation  Only want coagulation to happen if repairing, if clots when healthy can clog vessels  Platelet activation (to become “superhero” and coagulate) by addition of ADP (inhibited by clopidogrel)  ADP should never be freely floating in blood, if it is this sends message to platelets that nearby cell has ruptured.  Platelet activation by thromboxane A2 which is released by platelets to activate other platelets (positive feedback)  Activated platelets  Adhere to collagen (exposed by damaged vessels)  Release serotonin (promotes vasoconstriction)  Release chemotactic agents that o Attract macrophages and neutrophils  Why no NSAIDS before surgery?  NSAIDS(like aspirin, Aleve, ibuprofen) non-steroidal (block formation of thromboxane lower on chain)*look at pic*  Activated platelets release thromboxane A2 o causes platelet aggregation, chemotaxis, and pain o Made from phospholipid bilayer  Initiated by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)  Inhibited by COX inhibitors (Celebrex, Vioxx)  Platelet plug  3 major results of platelet plug: o Actin and myosin contract to compact and strengthen plug o Serotonin and thromboxane A2 cause vasoconstriction o Plugged platelets release other chemical factors that initiate the next phase: coagulation  A clog/coagulation is a stable strong closure with tough fibrin web  Plug is loose aggregation (blot, don’t wipe blood of patient)  Coagulation-cascade mechanism  Look at image (don’t need to know all of it just features)  2 possible ways it starts: o Intrinsic (contact activation) pathway o extrinsic pathway  final product is a cross-linked fibrin clot (doesn’t matter which pathway)  compare and contrast the two pathways o extrinsic is faster at starting (15-20 seconds) intrinsic is (3- 6 minutes)  massaging irritates tissues which stimulates cells to release tissue factor which makes it go faster o intrinsic is only one that relies on platelets and platelet factors o both use calcium o both form Factor X which helps to turn on prothrombin activator (PA or prothrominase) CBIO 2210 class notes 2/4/16 Top Hat Questions: 1. Which of the following is true of all leukocytes? a. They are nucleated i. (not all leukocytes have granules…Cells that have granules are secretory cells) 2. A chemical vasoconstrictor that promotes vascular spasm in cut blood vessels a. Serotonin 3. Bone marrow tests on a 76 year old male indicate an excessive number of immature B cells. What is the best diagnosis from this? a. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia i. Chronic=elderly, B cells are lymphocytic Cardiovascular System: Heart (chapter 19)  Case study: bulldog puppy with 2 day history of : anorexia (not eating), dyspnea(irregular breathing), tachypnea(breathing really fast), always appeared tired and does not play as much o What is one possible hematological (blood) pathology that may explain symptoms?  Anemia (low RBC count) look for B12 o Look at blood lab work data:  not anemic, the lymphocyte count is the only low one (but not that low)  Could be vascular or cardiological since blood is fine o What happens when you cannot maintain a one-way flow of blood? o Why is the puppy having a hard time breathing?  Body feels like it is not getting enough oxygen, blood loses some oxygen when valves do not close all the way  Heart Anatomy: Myocardium (muscular tissue that makes up most of the heart)  o Walls (*picture*)  Areolar connective tissue between each layer  Epicardium  Outside of myocardium  Folds back on itself and creates pericardial sac which has fluid that reduces friction of heart as it beats  Aka, Visceral layer of the serous pericardium  Aka, Visceral pericardium  Myocardium  Cardiac muscle (makes up most of heart)  Wraps the heart  Form a spiral of muscle fibers when observed from the bottom up  This layer is thicker in left ventricle and thinner in right ventricle o This maintains a one-way flow of blood o It is thicker on the left ventricle because muscle builds up from consistently pumping blood against a greater resistance  Endocardium  Innermost layer  Composed of simple squamous epithelium tissue called endothelium  Endothelium is unique because it does not trigger an immune response, only lines heart chambers and blood vessels  Pulmonary and Systemic circuits o 2 separate circuits each driven by one side of the heart  Pulmonary: right, lungs, left  Systemic: left, body, right  Heart Anatomy: Valves o 2 pairs  Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)  Aka: tricuspid (right AV valve) and bicuspid ( left AV, most commonly called mitral)  Anchored by chordae tendineae and papillary (little cords), keep edges of valve from flapping backwards (keeps blood from flowing back in wrong way) o Contraction of the papillary muscles and tightening of the chordae tendineae prevents valvular prolapse and ensures one way flow of blood.  Semilunar valves (SL valves)  Aka: pulmonary (right SL, blood leaving right ventricle, keeps it going only one way) and aortic(in base of aorta, blood leaving left ventricle, keeps it from going back in) o Blood moves into valves because less pressure in valve than in vein o Sound of heart beat is valves closing o The AV valves close together when SL ones open together  Clinical Pathologies o Incompetent valves: when they do not close completely and don’t keep blood from going backwards.  Murmur: Non-sharp sound of heart caused by loose valves not closing all the way o Mitral valve prolapse:  Regurgitation, when blood goes backwards, most commonly happens in mitral valve because it is a 2 flap valve (3 flap valve is most efficient)  This valve closes against pressure from left ventricle, making this the place with the highest blood pressure in all the circulatory system, so bad to have a 2 flap valve here. o Stenosis o Rheumatic fever  Key points o The four-chambered heart is covered by a double-walled sac o The heart wall is formed from three separate layers of tissue o Heart valves maintain one-way flow of blood


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