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Criminology_Deterrence Theory_week3


Criminology_Deterrence Theory_week3 16SS_CJ7020001

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A discussion of Deterrence Theory, includes Rational Choice Theory. 1. The goal and history of Deterrence Theory. 2. Utilizing Deterrence Theory to criminal policy, the perspective of punishment....
Seminar in Criminology
Ben Feldmeyer
Class Notes
criminology, Deterrence
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by MEI-TING HSIA on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 16SS_CJ7020001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Ben Feldmeyer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Seminar in Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/10/16
DETERENCE (RATIONALCHOICE) (02/10) Goal: (1) Deterrence: scare people/ stop offending (2) Incapacitation- Remove (3) Retribution: eye for eye (4) Rehabilitation History: Supernatural (trial on Ordeals)- Enlightenment (1700s): Free will/ choice; Hedonistic Pleasure (sought pleasure & avoided pain); Rational/ Calculating- “On Crime Punishment- Beccaria” Classical School(1764) THEORY BELIEF PUNISHMENT CLASSICAL SCHOOL Beccaria (1764) Criminals choose the 1. Swift; Severe; Certain crime; M         aximum of pleasure and 2. Judge should decide Minimum of Pain punishment                      3. Protect social contract Deterence Rational Choice Part I; Beccaria (An Essay On Modern Criminology-Classical Theory) Classical Theory: people are rational, and concerned with minimizing their pain and maximizing their pleasure. Their efforts to do so ofter leads them to engage in crime, unless they are deterred by the threat of punishment. Punishment should be set by the “sovereign” or representative of the state, clearly stated proportionate to the crime, swift, and certainty (then the severity), Immediate punishment Part XI; Cornish and Clarke Reviving Classical Theory: Crime as a Rational Choice (Rational Choice Theory) Crime are broadly the result of rational choices based on analyses of anticipated costs and benefits. Steps: 1. “Initial involvement model” (decision making in criminal involvement): decide if use crime to satisfy the needs (based on experience and learning); 2. decide particular crime (immediate situation); 3. select the target of crime (“crime-specific”: different models of decision making are necessary for specific crime; focus on crime) Contains “Initial involvement model” —>“Event Model”(situation factor)—>“Continue Involvement Model”(increase professionalism; change in life style and values; change in peer group)—>“Desistance Model”(life event…) Part XI; Wright and Decker:Armed Robbers inAction *General deterrence-general population *Specific deterrence- offenders Punishment Works well on…. Not as well - White Collar: Stakes in conformity (formal,informal) - Rape Child Molester - Highest Risk offenders: pulling/ targeted deterrence - Homicide Domestic violence (the con will be only harsh punishment, happens) - Drugs/Alcohol (Addiction ) - Male Prohibit? - Mental Illness - Recency/ Temporary - Gang Offenders - Public - Career Criminals - Instrumental/ property - Violence/ private/ personal However, we can not give certain crime severe punishment on those work well, since there will be no uniform, will have different calculation. Punishment of Deterrence Theory certainty of punishment does seem to carry a bit more weight than the severity of punishment. But as I’ll discuss in a minute, changing certainty of punishment is often much more difficult than simply making fines and prison sentences (severity) greater. Critiques of Deterrence Theory 1. Impulsive/ don’t make rational decision 2. Unaware of punishment (Kleck’s article “Dirty little secret”: perception of punishment don’t match actual reality”) 3. Inconsistent 4. Delay: Penalties learned after arrest; Punishment should give immediately 5. People don’t logically: drugs, mental impairment 6. Individualized differences 7. Certain crimes are hard to deter 8. Distrust in Court/ Law/ Legal system 9. Less choice than we think 10. Counterfactual reasoning: Punishment reflects Norms
 For example: 1990s Increased Police Present,1980s Mass Incarceration have some affect on offense rate (it drops), but only some influences. (It’s hard to determine on deter to what have effects on what) 11. Displacement: change the choice, but not about whether the offenders choice or not. Many critiques on Deterrence Theory, but not on Rational Choice Theory. Since the former focuses on the formal punishment and fear. And Deterrence Theory is based on Rational Choice Theory.


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