GLBL 210 Notes 2/8/16-2/10/16
GLBL 210 Notes 2/8/16-2/10/16 GLBL 210
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Wednesday February 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GLBL 210 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jonathan Weiler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Global Issues in Global Studies at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 02/10/16
GLBL 210 Notes 2/8/16-2/10/16 2/8/16 - Key concepts: o Nation-state o Nation-building o Declining state authority - Rise of modern nation-states: o Began after Treaty of Westphalia 1648 Created new political entities with specific characteristics - Key features of modern states: o Defined territorial boundaries o Pretty much permanent population o Sovereignty o International recognition by other states of boundaries/sovereignty o Monopoly on legitimate use of force/coercion Laws enforced by government- run police force - “nation” part of nation-state is common identity between people living in state, mostly ethnic and linguistic identity - Italy began as group of different principalities o Different languages, locations, ethnic groups No sense of unification o Unified in 1860, people began to identify as “Italians” Before, only about 3% actually spoke Italian - 19 century problems of states: o Political: difficult to maintain authority and power No longer accepted that authority comes from God Need different, legitimate base of power o Economic: must make market integration easier Trading over larger distances and with greater amount of people Includes factor of scientific and technological advancements th - Solutions to 19 century problems: o Political problem: liberal democracy (liberal meant in classical sense) o Economic problem: capitalism, nation-building o Unification, in general sense, fixed these problems - Nation-building: o Focus on younger citizens Haven’t developed social identity yet, can be molded and taught Education primarily used to create and encourage common history and identity Largely positive image of home country painted in primary education *2/10/16 notes are down one page* 2/10/16 - Marshall Plan video: o Communist party offered way to change problems in social order o Differing opinions about what to do with Germany after WWII Stalin wanted to weaken Germany even farther US wanted to help Germany get on their feet again’ Specifically wanted to give Germany a lot of money (George Marshall) o Soviet Union viewed Marshall Plan aid as attempt by US to gain control/influence over recipients Refused to join Threatened other countries- Czechoslovakia wanted to join, but Stalin threatened to end alliance with them o Marshall Plan goals= fee hungry and prevent spread of communism across Europe o Marshall Plan led to US economic boom US was market for goods produced with Marshall aid, US products sold in Marshall countries - Grants given by Marshall Plan must be used for American goods - Marshall Plan used for US self-interest o Used to impose American ideals/values on Europe- production techniques, capitalism, etc. - Key concepts: o Bretton Woods Institutions IMF and World Bank, sometimes World Trade Organization (WTO) o Marshall Plan o Triad o “selective” globalization - Europe devastated by WWII o Created humanitarian problem o Also made political disaster for American foreign relations Opportunity for communism to prosper o American planners must make sure that Western Europe, other than Soviet Union, joins Western side - Data points to illustrate devastation: o Germany at 1/3 of productive capacity after war o German living standards dropped from 80% of US living standards to 25% after war o Italy and Japan pushed back to living standards/production of 1910 in 1946 - US= unparalleled level of world power/dominance (mostly economically) after WWII - Bretton Woods System: o Negotiations mostly between Harry Dexter White and Keynes o Major question is how to ensure that WWII never happens again Central plank= economic circumstances that caused WWII necer happen again o Goal= create new global economic order - Bretton Woods Institutions: o International Monetary Fund (IMF): centered around world trade o World Bank: originally created to bring Western Europe out of economic devastation o General agreement on tariffs and trade (WTO) o Sometimes UN included - Marshall Plan self-interest goals: o Get Western Europe on their feet economically to provide viable US trading partners o Also prevent spread of communism - Key goals of Marshall Plan: o Rebuild infrastructure and modernize industry o Reduce trade barriers o Stimulate investment in American industries o Ensure social peace by creating prosperous Europe o Prevent spread of communism - US gave $13.5 billion of Marshall aid and ½ billion to Japan o Approximately 5% American GDP o Large scale of aid- HUGE economic investment - Data points to illustrate US prosperity after WWII: many set in motion by Marshall Plan o US produced 57% of world’s manufactured goods Decreased to 22% in 1973 (still sizable control) o US wages doubled 1950-1970 o Triad (US, Western Europe, Japan) minus US produced 15% of world manufacturing 1948 30% in 1973 o Cars= symbol of US economic dominance US produced 75% cars in 1950 2012 produced 12%
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